3Essential question: How have humans used technologies to influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms?Genetic ModificationGM stands for 'genetically-modified‘describes the process by which scientists are able to pinpoint the individual geneRemove gene, copy it, place it in new organismproduces a desired outcomeSelective Breedingthe intentional mating of two animals or plantsproduces offspring with desirable traitsCan also get rid of unwanted traitsAnimal HusbandrySelective Breeding of animals onlyConcerned with the production and care of domestic animalsGene TherapyTechnique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease.May allow doctors to treat a disorder by putting a gene into a patient’s cellsNo need for drugs or surgery.
5Reasons for Genetically Modifying Organisms Produce faster growing crops or animalsProduce plants that are more resistant to pestsRainbow PapayaProduce crops that are drought resistantProduce foods that stay ripe longerEndless Summer TomatoResearch:Drug developmentCommercial reasonsFluorescent fish for petsIncrease yield of cropReduce cost that is passed to consumerEnhance the nutritional value of a foodGolden Rice
6Process to make Genetically modified Organisms The first GMOs were bacteria in the early 1970s.Most basic modifications are designed and prepared using bacteria (usually E.Coli) and then transferred to the target organisms.
7Controversy of Genetically modified organisms What evidence is there of problems with GM crops?Some studies have shown negative results for lab animals that ate GMO foods.Those foods were not meant for human consumptionThere are not very many studies that show these negative results.Other scientists have criticized and questioned some of these studies.Video -Controversy over GMOs in general:Genetic modification is placing the genes of one species into another unrelated species.Some modifications are created by corporations to make crops resistant to pests or to certain chemicals.Controversy over GM foods:Have they been tested enough to prove they are safe?Could pesticide resistant plants become toxic?Could peanut genes inserted into soybeans cause unexpected allergic reactions?
8Pros and cons of GMO Food Higher crop yieldsReduced need for herbicides and pesticidesImproved food qualityIncreased nutritional valueConsPossible allergiesUnpredicted changes to the ecosystemChance of new diseases developing
10Reasons for Selective Breeding We choose the characteristics we want:Dogs with a good sense of smell, hearing etc.Improve food productionBetter able to fight off pestsMore fit and stronger animalsCows that give more milkChickens that lay bigger eggsSelective Breeding – Plants and AnimalsAnimal Husbandry – Animals onlyTypically for farming and agriculture
11Process of Selective Breeding Decide which characteristics are importantChoose parents that show these characteristicsSelect the best offspring from parents to breed the next generationRepeat the process continuouslyHuman controlled Natural Selection/Evolution
12Controversies of Selective breeding Benefits to humanityBetter/more plentiful food.Service animalsHumans have been using selective breeding for thousands of years already.Animal Rights:Should animals have the right to select their own breeding partners?UnnaturalIt doesn’t occur in nature, does that make it wrong?
14Reasons for Gene Therapy To alter genes to correct genetic defectsprevent or cure genetic diseases.Not to be confused with Genetic engineering which changes the genes to make the organism better than normal.Possibility to cure deadly diseases like cancer
15Process of Gene Therapy Three different ways:Replacing a mutated gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the geneInactivating, or “knocking out,” a mutated gene that is functioning improperlyIntroducing a new gene into the body to help fight a disease
16Controversies of Gene Therapy Pros:Could wipe out genetic diseasesPrevent genetic disorders in future generations for families who know they have it in their bloodlineCons:Still a dangerous and difficult processWhen used in unborn children, not sure of effectsChild doesn’t have a choice