Presentation on theme: "The Punic Wars Chapter VI part IV. OVERSEAS EXPANSION In the 200's B.C. Rome was conquering Italy. Another power, Carthage, existed on the opposite side."— Presentation transcript:
OVERSEAS EXPANSION In the 200's B.C. Rome was conquering Italy. Another power, Carthage, existed on the opposite side of the Mediterranean.
It was a wealthy Phoenician city located on the coast of North Africa trading with cities all around the Mediterranean. Carthage and Rome became fierce enemies and fought 3 long and bloody wars over which power would control the Mediterranean.
The teeming harbor of Carthage was one of the busiest in the entire Mediterranean world.
THE 1st PUNIC (PYOO nihk) WAR By the 200s B.C., Carthage had towns it controlled on Sicily (the large island at the toe of Italy). That was too close for the Romans
When Carthage moved into Messina in northern Sicily the local Greek cities under Rome's protection cried out to Rome for help.
Rome feared Carthage would gain complete control of the island and then move against Rome itself.
In 246 B.C., the two powers went to war. This war became known as the first Punic war. Punici was the Roman word for "people of Carthage".
Rome, being very inferior and inexperienced in sea battles had to think quickly. After finding an abandoned Carthaginian warship they built 100 duplicates in 60 days.They soon built over 200 warships and won huge victories at sea.
They also developed a strategy where they invented a large hook like drawbridge called the Corvus, Crow, or Raven which was a kind of wooden walkway with a sharp spike at the end. The crow was held upright until the Romans pulled their ship up next to an enemy ship.
Then they quickly lowered the crow so the spike stuck on the enemy ship's deck. The crow served as a bridge for the Roman soldiers to get on to the enemy ship easily. This could allow 120 soldiers to march onto the vessel.
After winning many victories the Romans lost 200 of their ships and 100,000 men to very violent storms off Camarina in 255 BC.They soon regrouped and defeated Carthage in 241 BC with their fleet of warships.
It took approximately 20 years for the Romans to drive the Carthaginians out of Sicily. This would mark Rome's first overseas territory
The first Punic war lasted 23 years. Carthage had a hard time, but Rome could handle the heavy losses of men because of it's huge army and loyal allies.
By 241 B.C., the Carthaginian army, led by General Hamilcar Barca, surrendered. The Carthaginians had to pay a large sum of money known as an "indemnity" to Rome for the costs of the war. Rome began to take over the Mediterranean world.
In 238 B.C. the Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, left for Spain to raise a new army to fight another war against Rome.
He was angry and humiliated that Carthage had lost the last war with Rome.
Hamilcar Barca took his son Hannibal to Spain with him and taught him to be a soldier. Twenty years later, Hannibal honored his promise to his father. He became a brilliant general and became one of Rome's greatest enemies!
Although beaten by the Romans, Carthage was still an important power. General Hamilcar took an army and began to rebuild Carthage's empire in Spain, where there were many trading posts. But In 229 B.C. Hamilcar was killed in battle.
The army elected Hamilcar's son, Hannibal, to be the new commander. Hannibal was only 26 years old, but it was time for him to fulfill the oath he had made as a child.
Rome declared war, again, on Carthage. This one was called the Second Punic War, and it would last 18 years!
Rome was nervous as Hannibal began to conquer Spain. And in 219 B.C., Hannibal attacked and conquered the city of Saguntum, one of Rome's allies in Spain.
Hannibal had gathered an army of about 70,000 soldiers, 12,000 horses, and 37 elephants. They marched across the Pyrenees Mountains in Spain and through southern Gaul (modern France).
Finally, Hannibal and his army entered Italy and began fighting the Romans. Although all of Hannibal's elephants died except one, Hannibal continually defeated the Romans in battle after battle.
One such battle was the Battle of Cannae. Hannibal surrounded the Romans and destroyed their entire army, killing 70,000 Romans and selling the rest as slaves.
But Rome's people had determination, and that helped them to continue fighting until a general came who could defeat Hannibal. That was the Roman general Scipio Africanus.
First, Scipio made a secret agreement with one of Carthage's allies in North Africa, Numidia ( the country now known as Algeria). Then, while Hannibal was still in Italy, Scipio attacked Carthage.
Since most of its army was in Italy, Carthage was in trouble. But just as it was ready to surrender to the Romans, Hannibal returned from Italy.
Scipio fought Hannibal at the Battle of Zama, a town near Carthage.
With the help of the Numidians and using Hannibal's own methods, Scipio won.
Scipio was given the name "Africanus" in honor of his victory over Hannibal in northern Africa.
Hannibal survived the Battle of Zama but had to run away. Finally in 183 B.C. Romans found him in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey) and forced him to surrender. As they guarded him, he secretly took poison and ended his life.
Carthage's empire was over. Carthage was forced to give up its territories and its ships, and to pay Rome huge amounts of money.
In 149 B.C., Carthage got tired of paying the Romans and being ruled by them. They rebelled against Rome, and began the Third Punic War!
This time, as punishment, Rome sold all of the surviving Carthaginians into slavery and completely destroyed the city by burning it to the ground.
With Carthage out of the way, Rome became the most important power in the western Mediterranean. So, Rome turned to the east.
Rome was now free to expand unimpeded. Eventually, the Romans would rename the Mediterranean Mare Nostrum- “our sea.”
5 Reasons Why Rome Conquered There were Five Reasons why Rome was so successful in their ambition to build an Empire. First, because of their strong and balanced government the Roman people were stronger than the power of any one opposing leader. And they were proud of their accomplishments.
Second, Rome treated conquered peoples as friends and, in several cases, made them citizens. This way Rome was able to raise a large army. And Rome's friends were usually loyal to Rome because they shared in the profits (loot and stolen property) from Roman wars.
Third, Rome's army valued disciplined by years of war. Few other armies could match its strength.
Fourth, Romans greatly valued military success.
Heavy artillery came in various sizes. A small ballista had a range of about 1,400 feet; a large onager could lob a 60-pound missile a distance of half a mile.
A fire thrower, this large ballista could fling 12- foot flaming darts 2,000 feet or more.
Projectile dating back to the Gallic Wars, found in a plowed field in France.
Roman military technology — siege tower, battering ram, projectiles hammering the walls
Roman military engineers building structures to be used in the siege of a fortified city. The logs are being used to build a siege terrace from which archers, slingers, and javelin hurlers could fire down on defenders on a city wall.
A siege tower being wheeled toward the wall of a fortress
Approaching the wall, a detachment of Roman legionaries moves up behind the assault tower as it is slowly rolled into place.
The final attack comes as Romans charge over a drawbridge which has been dropped from their assault tower.
Detail of battering ram and mechanized crossbows
The long sheds are used to protect workmen while they construct siege works. In the foreground are Roman war machines which have hurled flaming projectiles at and over the wall.
Roman artillery in action — In the background, reinforcements rush up the steps of the siege terrace to replace the wounded
In fact, military success was needed if a man hoped to become powerful in the Roman government.
Fifth, wars brought a lot of money and treasure. Conquered lands were often given to Roman soldiers who retired. Valuables seized from the enemy made the government rich as well as individual leaders. Prisoners from the conquered lands became slaves.
The highest honor for a general was a "triumph," a grand parade through the streets of Rome. The victorious general, dressed up to look like the supreme god Jupiter, rode in a chariot.
For all these reasons, Roman leaders were ready to go to war year after year. From 338 to 50 B.C., Rome conquered more and more people and countries.