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U.S. Expansion and the Spanish-American War (1898)

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. Expansion and the Spanish-American War (1898)"— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. Expansion and the Spanish-American War (1898)
Explain why significant events and individuals including, the Spanish–American War, (US.S. Maine) ; U.S. expansionism (Hawaiian Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam and Philippine Islands), [Henry Cabot Lodge, Alfred Thayer Mahan], and Theodore Roosevelt, moved the U.S. into the position of a world power. (TEKS US 3A) (TAKS 1) 56. Describe the economic effects of international military conflicts, including the Spanish–American War, on the United States (new colonies and trading partners). (TEKS US 12E) 57. Analyze the effects of economic policies including the Open Door Policy and Dollar Diplomacy on U.S. diplomacy. (TEKS US 12D) Describe the dynamic relationship between U.S. international trade policies and the U.S. free enterprise system. (Open Door Policy) (TEKS 14E) (TAKS 3) 58. Analyze the effects of physical and human geographic factors on major events including the building of the Panama Canal. (TEKS US 9A) (TAKS 2) 59. Identify and explain reasons for changes in political boundaries such as those resulting from statehood and international conflicts (Spanish–American War). (TEKS US 9B)

2 The US Becomes A World Power

3 U.S Expansion and the Spanish American War (1898) Key Terms
Imperialism: the actions used by one nation to exercise economic and political domination of a strong nation over other weaker nations Annexation: incorporating a territory within the domain of a country Pan-Americanism: the popular idea that emerged in the 1880s that the United States and Latin America should work together to support peace and increase trade Protectorate: a country that is technically independent but is actually under the control of another country Yellow Journalism: a type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers Jingoism: extreme nationalism marked by aggressive foreign policy Anglo-Saxonism: belief shared by many Americans that it was the destiny of the United States to expand overseas and spread its civilization to other people

4 Arguments in Favor of U.S. Expansion
Colonies could provide raw materials for American industries Americans can raise and maintain a powerful navy with naval bases around the world Missionaries and other Americans believed that they could share American ideas to help less fortunate people Expansionism allowed the U.S. to become more competitive with European nations Alfred Thayer Mahan – The Influence of Sea Power upon History – a powerful navy was essential to a country that wanted to achieve world power

5 Arguments Against American Expansion
Imperialism violated the U.S. foundation of self-rule and went against President George Washington’s foreign policy advice on remaining neutral and an isolationist nation. Groups like the American Anti-Imperialist League – were against U.S. involvement in foreign policy that involved subjugation of people.

6 What is foreign policy? A policy pursued by a nation in its dealings with other nations, designed to achieve national objectives. What were the national objectives of the USA in the late 1800s? Promote democracy? Safeguard US economic interests in Latin America? Canal? Asia market (China, Japan, etc.)

7 A desire for new Markets
Over the last 19th century, European nations were expanding their power overseas. This expansion became known as the “New Imperialism” Imperialism: the actions used by one nation to exercise economic and political domination of a strong nation over other weaker nations. Why? Raw Materials Tariffs reduced trade among European nations Search for new investment opportunities To build railroads, mines, and factories

8 New markets As the USA industrialized in the late 1800s, Americans also looked abroad. Closing of the American frontier Anglo-Saxonism: the belief shared by many Americans that it was the destiny of the United States to expand overseas and spread its civilization to other people John Fiske (historian) Josiah Strong (American missionary)

9 Expansion in the Pacific
Japan Americans began looking overseas in the late 1800s and naturally looked westward. Japan and China offered tremendous opportunities for trade. President Franklin Pierce sent Commodore Matthew C. Perry to Japan in the early 1850s and forced Japan to open their ports to Americans.

10 Expansion in the Pacific
Annexing Hawaii Americans were interested in Hawaii as a “stepping-stone”to China. American settlers in Hawaii grew sugar-cane that they sold to the US in the mid 1800s. US Sugar growers were not required to pay a tariff when they sold sugar in the US In return, the US obtained a naval base in Pearl Harbor

11 Expansion in the Pacific
Annexing Hawaii In 1891 Queen Liliuokalani ascended to the Hawaiian throne. She tried to limit the power of the Americans and created a new constitution less favorable to the American sugar growers

12 Expansion in the Pacific
Annexing Hawaii The American planters reacted by overthrowing the queen. They requested that the US annex Hawaii. In 1898, the US annexed Hawaii.

13 Expansion In the Pacific
As imperialist ideas and Anglo-Saxonism gained popularity in the late 1800s, the US became more aggressive in foreign affairs. Alfred T. Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, His book argued that a strong nation needed a large navy to protect its merchant ships and defend its right to trade. His book helped build support for a big navy. Back by U.S. Senators Henry Cabot Lodge and Albert J. Beveridge By the 1890s, the US was on its way to becoming a top naval power.

14 The Spanish-American War (1898)
Causes of the War Direct Cause: The explosion on the U.S.S. Maine killing 266 of the 354 sailor and officers in February 15th, 1898. Indirect Causes U.S. Support for Cuban Independence Yellow Journalism jingoism

15 The Spanish-American War
Indirect Causes Cuban Insurrection Cuba was one of Spain’s oldest and most profitable colonies Led by Jose Martí, Cuban rebels launched a movement for independence from Spain in February, 1895. Many Americans supported the Cuban rebels and their struggle for Independence Compared it to the struggle for US independence

16 The Spanish-American War (1898)
Indirect Causes (cont’d) Yellow Journalism US support for Cuban Independence grew as the nation’s newspapers reported, exaggerated, and at times made up stories of Spanish atrocities in Cuba. William Randolph Hearst New York Journal Sold 1 million copies daily during the Cuban crisis Joseph Pulitzer New York World Spanish atrocities were real Spanish General Valeriano Weyler, a.k.a. “El Carnicero” “Reconcentration camps”

17 The Spanish-American War (1898)
Steps to War William McKinley (Rep.) became president in He wanted to avoid war. Sent the U.S.S. Maine to Havana, Cuba in January, 1898 to protect Americans in Cuba In February, 1898, the Spanish ambassador to the US Enrique Dupuy de Lome wrote to Spain that McKinley was “weak.” On Feb. 15, 1898, the Maine exploded in Havana harbor. On March 28, 1898, a naval inquiry concluded that a mine had destroyed the Maine. On April 11, 1898, McKinley called for war against Spain. Teller Amendment: declared the US would guarantee Cuba independence after the Spanish were forced out. April 29, 1898: US declares war on Spain

18 Spanish American War (1898)
The US Takes the Philippines On May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey led his squadron into Manila Bay in the Philippines and destroyed the Spanish fleet. With the help of Filipino nationalists led by Emilio Aguinaldo, U.S. forces captured Manila on August 13, 1898.

19 Spanish American War (1898)
American Forces Enter Cuba On June 14, 1898, 17,000 US troops landed on the southern coast of Cuba and advanced on Santiago. Led by the “Rough Riders,” a volunteer cavalry made up of cowboys, miners and law officers. Theodore Roosevelt: Second in command of the Rough Riders Captured San Juan Hill The American destroyed the Spanish fleet at Santiago Harbor on July 3, 1898. On August 12, 1898, Spain and the US agreed to a cease fire.

20 Spanish American War

21 The New American Empire
On December 10, 1898, the US and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris. Under the treaty: Cuba became an independent country the US acquired Puerto Rico and Guam the US agreed to pay Spain $20 million for the Philippines


23 The Spanish American War: Aftermath
Rebellion in the Philippines The US fought and finally defeated Filipino nationalists in 1901. 4,000 American died and 20,000 died in combat suppressing the insurgency Granted independence in 1946 Puerto Rico Foraker Act (1900): made PR an unincorporated territory “Commonwealth Status” 1917: Puerto Ricans allowed US citizenship 1947: PR can elect a governor Cuba US established a military government in Cuba after the war Platt Amendment (1901) Cuba could not make any treaty with another nation that would weaken its independence or allow another power to gain territory in Cuba Cuba had to allow the US to buy or lease naval stations in Cuba (Guantanamo) Cuban debts had to be kept low The US would have the right to intervene to protect Cuban independence and keep order Repealed in 1934

24 American Diplomacy in the early 1900’s
Monroe Doctrine (1823): Issued by President James Monroe in 1823; declared that the American continents were closed to European colonization; advised that Europe respect the sovereignty of the Latin American nations. Sphere of influence: section of a country where one foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers Open Door Policy (1898): a policy that allowed each foreign nation in China to trade freely in the other nations’ spheres of influence Roosevelt Corollary (1904): an addition to the Monroe Doctrine; stated that the US would intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary to maintain economic and political stability. Dollar Diplomacy: foreign policy of President Taft ( ); use the power of the dollar, not guns, to promote stability in Latin America.

25 Theodore Roosevelt’s Rise to Power
Theodore Roosevelt became a war hero of the Spanish-American war in 1898. Elected governor of New York in 1898. In 1900, he became Vice-President under President William McKinley. In September, 1901, Theodore Roosevelt became the 26th President following the assassination of President McKinley.

26 Roosevelt and Foreign Policy
Roosevelt became a strong advocate of increasing and using American power on the world stage. He believed that the US had a duty to lift up the “less civilized” corners of the world He wanted to make the US a world military power. Big Stick Policy: “Speak softly and carry a big stick.”

27 The Open Door Policy Over the 1890’s, European powers and Japan established “leaseholds” or spheres of influence over large parts of China. A sphere of influence was a section of a country where a foreign nation acquires special rights and privileges. The foreign nation controls economic development (such as railroad construction and mining) in this foreign territory.


29 Open Door Policy To counter these spheres of influence in China, President McKinley and Secretary of State John Hay supported the Open Door policy. The policy that each foreign nation should allow other nations to trade freely in each other’s spheres of influence Allowed US access to China’s lucrative trade in tea, spices, and silk and a larger market to sell US goods

30 China’s Boxer Rebellion
Secret nationalist societies formed in China in the early 1900s to counter foreign influence. Westerners referred to some of these groups as “Boxers.” Chinese nationalists believed foreigners were corrupting Chinese society. Boxer Rebellion: In 1900, these groups attacked foreign embassies and killed over 200 foreigners. In August, 1900, an international force, including US troops, entered China and crushed the rebellion. Secretary of State John Hay played a major role in preventing European nations from using the rebellion as an excuse to partition China.

31 The Panama Canal One of Roosevelt’s most important actions in Latin America was the acquisition of the Panama Canal Zone in 1903. TR and others believed a canal through Central America to be vital for projecting American power throughout the world. The canal was needed to save time and money for trade and military shipping. A canal through Central America would shorten the distance between the Atlantic and the Pacific by about 8,000 nautical miles.

32 The Panama Canal In 1901, the US and Great Britain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, giving the US the exclusive right to build and control a proposed canal through Central America. In November, 1901, President Roosevelt sent ships to Panama in support of a military uprising for independence from Colombia.

33 The Panama Canal In 1903, the US signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty granting the US the control over 10-mile wide Panama Canal zone. Construction of the canal began in 1904.The project was completed in 1914 at a cost of $400 million and approximately 5,600 lives. Obstacles Malaria Yellow fever Swamps


35 The Roosevelt Corollary
TR expanded on his “big stick” policy as the US became more involved in world affairs abroad. In 1904, TR pushed a new form of diplomacy called the “Roosevelt Corollary.” the policy that the US would intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary to maintain economic and political stability in the Western Hemisphere

36 US intervention in Latin America (1895-1930’s)

37 William Howard Taft and “Dollar Diplomacy”
William Howard Taft, Roosevelt’s successor, continued TR’s policies. Placed less emphasis on military force Advocated Dollar Diplomacy: using the power of American business and trade to promote economic growth and stability in Latin America

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