4The supreme law-making body in the United Kingdom. Who is it made up of?
5Influences on Parliament The government may be influenced by organisations in changing existing laws or making new ones.It may seek the advice of different organisations to help it formulate its policy.
6Law Commission (1)The Law Commission Act 1965 set up the Law Commission as a permanent body. It consists of five legal experts chosen from the judiciary, legal profession and legal academics. Its job is to:identify areas of law where reform is necessarycodify the lawrepeal obsolete lawsconsolidate and modernise the law, for example theFamily Law Act 1996 changed the law on divorceWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of codification?
7Law Commission (2)The Law Commission’s role in repealing obsolete legislation is more straightforward.The Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1998 repealed over 150 complete Acts of Parliament, which were outdated.Parliament is not always keen to find time to pass the Law Commission’s draft bills, e.g. the lengthy Draft Criminal Code.
8Law Commission (3)Around 70% of the Law Commission’s proposals eventually become law, but a lot of the work that it does is disregarded.The government is not obliged to pass any of the Law Commission’s recommendations.
9Advantages Possess considerable legal and non-political expertise Considerable research conductedWell informed recommendationsIndependent body (not just areas which the government wants to focus on are looked at)Works on its own initiative – not the government’s
10DisadvantagesOnly about a third of it’s recommendations are implementedThe government is not obliged to implement it’s proposalsProposals do not always suit the government’s agendaLack of powerLengthy process which can take yearsConducts investigations at a time meaning each one might not be as thorough as it could be
11Royal CommissionsRoyal Commissions are groups of independent experts who are asked to consider a specific area of concern in the law. They are set up on an ad hoc basis and work part time to investigate issues and then formulate their proposals.Examples of Royal Commissions include the Runciman Commission, the Pearson Commission 1978 and the Wakeham Commission.
12Other influences on Parliament public inquiriesmediapressure groupsmanifesto promiseseuropean Union law
13Public inquiriesPublic inquiries are usually set up after a serious event or disaster, e.g. the Taylor Report (set up after the Hillsborough disaster) and the Cullen Report (set up after the Dunblane tragedy).
14MediaThe media may campaign for a change in the law, e.g. reports concerning pit bull terriers attacking children led to the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991.Criminal Justice Act 2003 – ‘double jeopardy’ rule.The campaign to ‘name and shame’ paedophiles after the death of Sarah Payne was, however, unsuccessful.
15Advantages Raise government awareness of certain issues Voice the public opinionCan support pressure groupsRaises public awareness – pressures the government into making reforms as they are answerable to the electorate
16Disadvantages Newspapers have political allegiances Media outlets are looking to make profits (sex sells)Can easily whip up moral panic
17Pressure groupsThe Fathers 4 Justice campaign uses publicity stunts (known as ‘direct action’), but so far it has been unsuccessful. However, gay rights groups were successful in getting the age of homosexual consent lowered from 18 to 16 in 2000.Pressure groups may ‘lobby’ Parliament, e.g. trade unions lobby MPs to get better rights for workers.
18Sectional Pressure Groups Sectional or interest groups exist to further the interests of a section of societye.g. National farmers Union, British medical associationThe degree of influence depends on whether the government supports their particular interest.Large groups have a lot of members and usually affluent and connected members meaning the government will usually take on board what they are saying.
19Cause Pressure GroupsCause groups promote a particular idea or belief.e.g. Greenpeace, RSPCA, Fathers 4 Justice, Jamie OliverUsually have less influence than sectional groups.Less likely to be consulted regarding the creation of laws as they do not really have close links with government ministers or departments.Well organised groups are able to publish their ideas with good impact and generally have the support of the public.Sometimes it can be just one person campaigning for a certain cause – Mary Whitehouse, Jamie Oliver.
20AdvantagesHave a broad range of tactics to raise public awareness of their cause – Fathers 4 justice (what do they do?)They can help keep the government in touch with the issues that the public believe are important – global warmingHuge numbers – some groups have more members than political partiesPressure groups have considerable expertise as they will need to put their point across
21DisadvantagesBiased in favour of their cause – don’t give both sides of the argumentPassionate views can lead to undesirable tactics – criminal behaviourLots of groups have no access to ministersOpinions held by these groups may only be those of a small number of people
22Manifesto promisesPolitical parties publish their proposals for new laws in a manifesto before a general election.The Labour Party’s manifesto in 1997 promised reforms to the House of Lords, which have been carried through.The Conservative Party promised the introduction of the poll tax in its 1987 manifesto.
23European Union lawIf UK law does not conform to EU law, Parliament must create a new law.For example, the Sex Discrimination Act 1986 was created to improve protection of female workers.
24Your Task Create a table that explains each of the following: What the law commission does:What pressure groups do (both types):What the media does:To influence parliamentary law makingThen for each influence explain the advantages and disadvantagesThen give 2 appropriate examples of each influenceThen give your opinion on the effectiveness of each influence