2Parliament The legislative organ Constitutionally consists of the Monarch, The House of Lords and the House of CommonsThe Queen in Parliament represents the supreme authority within the United Kingdom
3The House of Commons An elected and representative body 650 Members of Parliament (MPs) who represent their constituencies (523 in England, 72 in Scotland, 38 in Wales and 17 in Northern Ireland)Members are elected at General Elections held every five yearsMembers are paid a salary and an allowance
4Speaker Speaker of the House of Commons presides over the House The traditional guardian of the rights and privileges of the House
6Answer the following Who sits at the Speakers’ right side? Who is Sarjeant at Arms?What is Hansard?
7The House of Lords in the past In the past mainly a hereditary bodyLords Temporal (hereditary peers and peeresses who have not disclaimed their peerage; life peers created by the Crown under the Life Peerages Act of 1958 and Lords of Appeal in Ordinary – Law Lords)Lords Spiritual (the Archbishops of Canterbury and York and 24 senior bishops of the Church of England)
8The House of Lords today The Lords currently has around 740 Members, and there are three different types:elected hereditary Peers, life Peers (Lords Temporal) and bishops (Lords Spiritual)Unlike MPs, the public do not elect the Lords. The majority are appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime Minister or of the House of Lords Appointments Commission.
9Elected hereditary Peers The right of hereditary Peers to sit and vote in the House of Lords was ended in 1999 by the House of Lords Act but 92 Members were elected internally to remain until the next stage of the Lords reform process.
10Life PeersAppointed for their lifetime only, these Lords' titles are not passed on to their children. The Queen formally appoints life Peers on the advice and recommendation of the Prime Minister.
11Bishops (Lords Spiritual) A limited number of 26 Church of England archbishops and bishops sit in the House, passing their membership on to the next most senior bishop when they retire.
12Lord Chancellor Speaker of the House of Lords A member of the government – Minister of JusticeUntil 2009 presided over the judicial committee of the House of Lords
14What did you learn about Life Peers? What is the role of the Lord Speaker?What is Woolsack?
15The Monarch An integral part of the legislature Summons, prorogues (dismisses at the end of a session) and dissolves ParliamentOpens new sessions of Parliament with the Royal SpeechGives Royal Assent before a Bill which has passed all the stages in both Houses becomes a law
16Pressure for new lawsPressure for new laws comes from a variety of sources, mainly:Government policyEU LawLaw Commission reportsReoprts by other commissionsPressure groups
17Pre-parliamentary process The Government sets its legislative programme for the parliamentary session in the Queen’s Speech at the opening of ParliamentConsultation – more common in recent years (The Law Commission)
18Types of BillGovernment Bill – introduced by the Government through the relevant MinisterPublic Bill – one which relates to matters that affect the publicPrivate Bill – one which relates to the powers and interests of certain individuals or institutionsHybrid Bill – one which features both a public and a private BillPrivate Member’s Bill – one introduced by a MP
19Passing a BillA Bill may be started in either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, but it has to go through the same procedure in each House and pass all stages of the legislative procedure in order to become law
20Legislative Procedure Principal stages (for government bills)InspirationFormulationDraftingParliamentary ScrutinyVotingThe Royal AssentImplementation
21InspirationIdeas for a law come from a variety of sources (political parties, Government departments, interest groups, professional bodies)
22FormulationBecomes the responsibility of relevant Ministers and civil servantsCabinet committeesConsultation with experts, interest groups, trade associations and others likely to be affected by the legislation
23Drafting Preparation of a draft bill Draft bills introduced to Parliament
24Parliamentary Scrutiny First reading (no debate)Second reading (principle debated on floor)Committee stage (clause-by-clause scrutiny in Standing Committee)Report (amendments considered on floor)Third reading (final version debated)Voting
25The Royal Assent The Queen has to sign the Bill Then it becomes an Act of ParliamentThe Statute BookImplementation – binding for all the courts in the countryInterpretation leads to precedents
26RepealIf a new statute is clearly contrary to the old one already in the Statute Book, the new one must clearly repeal those parts of the old statuteThe old statute (or its parts) are no longer valid
27Vocabulary House of Commons – Donji dom House of Lords – Gornji dom Hereditary peerage – nasljedno plemstvoConstituency – izborna jedinicaBill – prijedlog zakonaRepeal – opoziv zakona