2 Chapter ObjectivesExplain how geography influenced the development of civilizations in India and ChinaIdentify characteristics of these civilizationsExplain political and social structures in these countriesDescribe the role of religionList the contributions of each civilization
3 Early Civilization in India The Land of IndiaIndia’s First CivilizationThe Arrival of the AryansSociety in IndiaHinduismBuddhism
4 Lesson Essential Question What were the main characteristics of Aryan civilization in India?
6 The Land of IndiaThe Indian subcontinent is composed of a number of core regionsMountain rangesRiver valleysDry interior plateauFertile coastal plainsThe Himalayas, in the far north, are the highest mountains in the worldThe Ganges River Valley, directly south of the Himalayas, if one of the chief regions of Indian cultureThe Indus River Valley to the west is a relatively dry plateau that forms the backbone of modern day PakistanIn ancient times, it enjoyed a more moderate climate and served as the cradle of Indian civilization
7 The Land of India (Cont) The Deccan plateau lies south of India’s two main rivers, and extends from the Ganges Valley to the tip of IndiaThe interior of the plateau is relatively hilly and dryEast and West Coast are lush plainsMost densely populated regions of IndiaPrimary feature of India’s climate is the monsoon- a seasonal wind pattern in southern AsiaWarm, moist air from southwest during the summerBrings heavy rains which farmers depend on to grow cropsIf rains come early or late, or too much or too little rain falls, crops are destroyed and thousands starveCold, dry air from northeast during the winter
8 India’s First Civilization Emerged in river valleys between 3000 BC and 1500 BCThe valleys of the Indus River supported a flourishing civilization that extended from the Himalayas to the coast of the Arabian SeaAdvanced civilization flourished in two major cities for hundreds of yearsHarappaMohenjo-Daro
9 Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro Both Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro had around 35,000-40,000 inhabitants at their heightsWell organized governmentsBoth cities were carefully plannedMain broad streets ran in a north-south directionCrossed by smaller east-west roadsLarge walled neighborhoods with narrow lanes separating the rows of housesBuildings built of square mud bricks forming a mud patternPublic works provided a regular supply of waterBathrooms- advanced drainage systemWastewater flowed out to drains located under the streets; carried to sewers outside city wallsTrash collected in bins
10 Think-Pair-ShareWhat evidence leads us to conclude there must have been well organized governments in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro?They are carefully structured cities, with public water supplies, advanced drainage systems, wastewater carried to sewer pits, trash collected in garbage bins, planned neighborhoods, and buildings made from oven-baked bricks
11 Rulers and the EconomyHarappan rulers based their power on a belief in divine assistanceReligion and political power were closely linkedRoyal palace and holy temple combined in the fortressEconomy based primarily on farmingFlooding of the Indus River every year provided rich soilAlso carried on extensive trading with Mesopotamian city- statesMuch of trading was carried out by ship via the Persian Gulf
12 The Arrival of the Aryans Arrived around 1500 BC from their original homeland of central AsiaMoved south across the Hindu Kush mountain range into the plains of northern IndiaThey conquered the Harappans and created a new Indian society based on Aryan culture and institutionsNomadic people who excelled at the art of warMoved throughout India until they controlled most of India
13 The Aryan Way of Life Pastoral people with a strong warrior tradition Gave up pastoral life for regular farmingIntroduction of ironIron plow made it possible to clear the dense jungleIrrigationDeveloped first writing system, Sanskrit, by 1000 BCWrote down legends and religious chants and ritualsEarly writing reveal India was a world of warring kingdoms and shifting alliancesAryan leaders, rajas, carved out small states and fought each otherSeized women, cattle, and treasure
14 Society in Ancient India The conquest by the Aryans had a lasting impact on Indian societyA set of social institutions and class divisions that has lasted to the present day, with minor changes, arose during this time period
15 The Caste System- Reading Activity Read the section titled The Caste System on pages 75-76After reading, make a graphic organizer identifying and describing the different castes in Indian society.
16 The Family In Ancient India Life was centered on family3 generations lived in same household- grandparents, parents, childrenPatriarchal- oldest male held legal authority over entire familyMales superior- allowed to inherit property, serve as priests, educatedDivorce was usually not allowedMan could take second wife if first not able to bear childrenChildren were importantExpected to take care of parents as they aged
17 The Family Life in Ancient India (Cont) Marriages were arranged and common for young girlsDaughters were seen as an economic drain on their parentsThe ritual of suttee is perhaps the best visual symbol of man’s dominance over womenWomen required to throw themselves on the pyre of her burning husband
18 Hinduism One of the most complex religions in the world Developed over 3500 years ago (around 1500 BC)No one founderTold people to live moral livesMany followers avoided violenceMany sacred textsBelieved in the existence of a single force in the universe, ultimate reality or God, BrahmanDuty of the individual self, to seek and know ultimate realityMerge with Brahman after death
19 Hinduism (Cont)Reincarnation- belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after deathAfter many reincarnations, the soul reaches its final goal in a union with the BrahmanKarma- force generated by a person’s actionsDetermines how the person will be reborn in the next lifeWhat people do in their current lives determines what they will be in their next lifeAlso, a person’s current status is a result of that person’s actions in a past existenceThe concept of karma is ruled by the dharma-divine lawRequires all people to do their dutyDuties vary depending on their societal status
20 Hinduism (Cont)System of reincarnation provided a religious basis for the rigid class divisions in IndiaPeople on higher end of society would not have those priviledges if they were not deservingGave hope to those on the lower end of the scaleDeveloped the practice of yogaDesigned to lead to the union with the BrahmanHundreds of deities in Hindu religion- 3 chief onesBrahma- CreatorVishnu- PreserverSiva- Destroyer
21 Hinduism (Cont)Many Hindu regard the multitude of gods simply as a different expression of the BrahmanHowever, the various gods and goddesses gave ordinary Indians a way to express their religious feelingsHinduism is still the religion of the vast majority of Indian people
22 BuddhismFounded in late 500’s BC by Siddhartha Gautama- the Buddha (“Enlightened One”)Denied the reality of the material worldBelieved physical surroundings were simply illusionsPain, poverty, and sorrow caused by people’s attachment to material itemsAchieving wisdom is a key step to achieving nirvana- or ultimate realityAchieving nirvana led to a reunion with the Great World SoulBased on the Four Noble TruthsOrdinary life is full of sufferingThis suffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselvesThe way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals and to see others as extensions of ourselvesThe way to end desire is to follow the Middle Path
23 Buddhism (Cont) The Middle Path- Eightfold Path Right view Right intentionRight speechRight actionRight livelihoodRight effortRight mindfulnessRight concentration
24 Buddhism (Cont)Accepted the idea of reincarnation, but rejected the caste systemAll humans could reach nirvana as a result of their behavior in this lifeRejected the multitude of gods that had become identified with HinduismSpread throughout India after the Buddha’s deathBuilt monasteries to promote his teaching and provide housing and training for monksAs Buddhism’s roots spread through Asia, it slowly declined in India
25 What were the main characteristics of Aryan civilization in India? Exit TicketUsing your notes and book, answer the following question.What were the main characteristics of Aryan civilization in India?