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**PUMPING SYSTEMS BASICS**

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**Effluent and De-watering (Sump pump)**

Waste Water Pump Types Effluent and De-watering (Sump pump) Sewage Pump (2” solids) Non-Clog (2 ½” solids) Grinder Pump

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**AUTOMATIC PUMPS NON-AUTOMATIC PUMPS Mechanical Switch**

Tethered Ball Float Switch Diaphragm Switch NON-AUTOMATIC PUMPS

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Wide Angle Switches PIGGY BACK FLOAT SWITCH DOUBLE PIGGY BACK SWITCH

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Control Switch

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SIMPLEX SYSTEM Simplex Control Panel

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DUPLEX SYSTEM Duplex Control Panel

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BASINS Polyethylene Basin Fiberglass Basin

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**THREE BASIC QUESTIONS FOR SIZING:**

PUMP SIZING THREE BASIC QUESTIONS FOR SIZING: 1. HOW MUCH ( Demand) 2. HOW HIGH ( Static Head) 3. HOW FAR ( Friction Head)

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**Calculating System Demand**

( HOW MUCH) POPULATION METHOD: Formula: ((NP x 100 gal/day/person x 4 )/24hrs/day )/60 min/hr. = GPM NP = population served Number 4 is the peak flow factor Examples: 80 people in a sub-division. ((80 x 100 x 4)/24)/60 = 23 GPM.

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**Calculating System Demand**

FIXTURE COUNT METHOD: Each fixture in a building is given a “ unit weight”. The total “unit weight” of all the fixture in the building is referenced on a conversion graph and a gallons per minute flow is determined.

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**Static Head ( How High) Discharge Point Discharge Line**

Static Head = Elevation Change Static Head Pump

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**Friction Head ( HOW FAR) Discharge Point Discharge Line**

Friction head is determined by adding the total length of the discharge line (including fittings) then referencing a friction loss chart . Using the system demand flow and the size of the discharge pipe, the total head loss can be found. Pump TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD = Static Head + Friction Head

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**Discharge Pipe Selection**

MINIMUM FLOW VELOCITY: In order to keep solids flowing in a horizontal pipe, a velocity of 2 ft. / sec. must be maintained. 2 ft./sec flow Pipe Suspended Solids Flow rates required to maintain 2 ft./sec: 2” pipe = 21 gpm 3” pipe = 46 gpm 4” pipe = 80 gpm

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**Discharge Volume Exchange**

To Find volume in Discharge line: Length of discharge ( ft.) X gal/ft. = Gal in Line Sewer Main Discharge Line Liquid Volume in Pipe: 2” = .17 gal/ft. 3” = .36 gal/ft. 4” = .65 gal/ft. Pump

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Pump and System Curves Combined Pump and System Curves System Curve

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**Basin Sizing & Selection**

1. Physical Dimensions : Will it Fit ?

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**Discharge Volume Exchange**

Liquid Volume in Pipe: 2” = .17 gal/ft. 3” = .36 gal/ft. 4” = .65 gal/ft. To Find volume in Discharge line: Length of discharge ( ft.) X gal/ft. = Gal in Line Basin Sewer Main Discharge Line Pump on Draw down Pump off Pump There should be enough draw-down to change the volume in the discharge line every cycle.

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**Discharge Volume Exchange**

Liquid Volume in Pipe: 2” = .17 gal/ft. 3” = .36 gal/ft. 4” = .65 gal/ft. To Find volume in Discharge line: Length of discharge ( ft.) X gal/ft. = Gal in Line Basin Sewer Main Discharge Line Pump on Draw down Pump off Pump There should be enough draw-down to change the volume in the discharge line every cycle.

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**Basin Sizing Calculations**

EXAMPLE: Commercial building with 50 gpm flow rate. Pump selected has a flow rate of 60 gpm. The pump height is 18” and the invert is 8”. The discharge line is 3” in diameter and 150 ft long. Step 1. Invert Distance - 8” Step 2. Pump Height ” Step 3. Draw down ( largest of the following ) a. Max starts – (( 50 gpm x 60 min )/ 6) x .4 = 200 gal/cycle 200 gal / 4.4 gal per inch = 45” b. Volume in discharge gal / ft x 150ft = 54 gal 54 gal / 4.4 gal per inch = 12” c. Pump run time : (60 gpm x 1 Min) / 4.4 gal per inch= 14 The total of all three critical dimensions is 71” The closest basin depth is 72”. Thus the suggested basin is 36 x 72. If this depth is too great for the application, then a wider basin can be used. This would result in a shallower basin.

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**Calculating Depth 36” diameter basin: Floor level 8” Invert Inlet pipe**

45” (Draw down) Pump Note: This would result in a complete change of volume and a run time of 3.5min 18”

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Residential Reality The preceding examples work well for commercial applications and for those residential applications serving the whole house. The reality is that most residential sewage applications serve just one, seldom used bathroom. In these applications the usage is so small that the pump protecting guidelines do not have the same importance. In these applications, a 2” solids pump and an 18 x 30 poly basin work very well.

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**VENTS AND AIR ADMITTANCE VALVES**

Related Topics VENTS AND AIR ADMITTANCE VALVES Vent to atmosphere Potential confined air Liquid Inflow Studor AAV Water level Incoming liquid displaces air, which is released through the vent. AAV’s prevent this release, causing the system to “air lock”.

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**Questions For Additional Information: Chris Beiswenger**

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