Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PowerPoint Authors: Susan Coomer Galbreath, Ph.D., CPA Charles W Caldwell, D.B.A., CMA Jon A. Booker, Ph.D., CPA, CIA Cynthia J. Rooney, Ph.D., CPA CHAPTER.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Authors: Susan Coomer Galbreath, Ph.D., CPA Charles W Caldwell, D.B.A., CMA Jon A. Booker, Ph.D., CPA, CIA Cynthia J. Rooney, Ph.D., CPA CHAPTER."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint Authors: Susan Coomer Galbreath, Ph.D., CPA Charles W Caldwell, D.B.A., CMA Jon A. Booker, Ph.D., CPA, CIA Cynthia J. Rooney, Ph.D., CPA CHAPTER 2 INVESTING AND FINANCING DECISIONS AND THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 2-2 UNDERSTANDING THE BUSINESS To understand amounts appearing on a company’s balance sheet we need to answer these questions: To understand amounts appearing on a company’s balance sheet we need to answer these questions: What business activities cause changes in the balance sheet? What business activities cause changes in the balance sheet? How do specific activities affect each balance? How do specific activities affect each balance? How do companies keep track of balance sheet amounts? How do companies keep track of balance sheet amounts?

3 2-3 THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

4 2-4 ELEMENTS OF THE BALANCE SHEET A = L + SE (Assets)(Liabilities)(Stockholders’ Equity) Economic resources with probable future benefits owned or controlled by the entity. Measured by the historical cost principle. Probable debts or obligations (claims to a company’s resources) that result from a company’s past transactions and will be paid with assets or services. Entities that a company owes money to are called creditors. The financing provided by the owners and by business operations. Often referred to as contributed capital.

5 2-5

6 2-6 WHAT BUSINESS ACTIVITIES CAUSE CHANGES IN THE FINANCIAL STATEMENT AMOUNTS? External Events: Exchanges between entity and one or more parties. Ex: Purchase of a machine from a supplier. Internal Events: Events that are not exchanges between parties but that have a direct and measurable effect on the entity. Ex: Using up insurance paid in advance. Nature of Business Transactions

7 2-7 ACCOUNTS CashEquipmentInventory Notes Payable An organized format used by companies to accumulate the dollar effects of transactions.

8 2-8 TYPICAL ACCOUNT TITLES A chart of accounts lists all account titles and their unique numbers.

9 2-9 PRINCIPLES OF TRANSACTION ANALYSIS  Every transaction affects at least two accounts (duality of effects).  The accounting equation must remain in balance after each transaction. A = L + SE (Assets)(Liabilities)(Stockholders’ Equity)

10 2-10 BALANCING THE ACCOUNTING EQUATION Step 1: Ask--What was received and what was given?  Identify the accounts (by title) affected and make sure at least two accounts change.  Classify them by type of account. Was each account an asset (A), a liability (L), or a stockholders’ equity (SE)?  Determine the direction of the effect. Did the account increase [+] or decrease [-]? Step 2: Verify--Is the accounting equation in balance?  Verify that the accounting equation (A = L + SE). Step 1: Ask--What was received and what was given?  Identify the accounts (by title) affected and make sure at least two accounts change.  Classify them by type of account. Was each account an asset (A), a liability (L), or a stockholders’ equity (SE)?  Determine the direction of the effect. Did the account increase [+] or decrease [-]? Step 2: Verify--Is the accounting equation in balance?  Verify that the accounting equation (A = L + SE).

11 2-11 ANALYZING CHIPOTLE’S TRANSACTIONS (a) Chipotle issued 10,000 additional shares of common stock, receiving $62,300 in cash from investors. A = L + SE $62,300 = 0 +

12 2-12 ANALYZING CHIPOTLE’S TRANSACTIONS A = L + SE $64,300$2,000$62,300 = +

13 2-13 ANALYZING CHIPOTLE’S TRANSACTIONS A = L + SE $72,300$10,000$62,300 = +

14 2-14 ANALYZING CHIPOTLE’S TRANSACTIONS A = L + SE $71,900$9,600$62,300 =+

15 2-15 ANALYZING CHIPOTLE’S TRANSACTIONS $71,900$9,600$62,300 A = L + SE =+

16 2-16 ANALYZING CHIPOTLE’S TRANSACTIONS A = L + SE $71,900$12,600$59,300 = +

17 2-17 THE ACCOUNTING CYCLE During the Period (Chapters 2 and 3) 1.Analyze transactions 2.Record journal entries in the general journal 3.Post amounts to the general ledger During the Period (Chapters 2 and 3) 1.Analyze transactions 2.Record journal entries in the general journal 3.Post amounts to the general ledger Start of new period At the End of the Period (Chapter 4) 4.Prepare a trial balance to determine if debits equal credits 5.Adjust revenues and expenses and related balance sheet accounts (record in journal and post to ledger) 6.Prepare a complete set of financial statements and disseminate it to users 7.Close revenues, gains, expenses, and losses to Retained Earnings (record in journal and post to ledger) At the End of the Period (Chapter 4) 4.Prepare a trial balance to determine if debits equal credits 5.Adjust revenues and expenses and related balance sheet accounts (record in journal and post to ledger) 6.Prepare a complete set of financial statements and disseminate it to users 7.Close revenues, gains, expenses, and losses to Retained Earnings (record in journal and post to ledger)

18 2-18 HOW DO COMPANIES KEEP TRACK OF ACCOUNT BALANCES? General Journal T-accounts General Ledger A = L + SE

19 2-19 TRANSACTION ANALYSIS MODEL T-Account (Any account) debitcredit “T-account” is merely a shorthand term for the entire ledger account. The T-account has a left side, called the debit side, and a right side, called the credit side.

20 2-20 SUMMARY

21 2-21 ANALYTICAL TOOL: THE JOURNAL ENTRY

22 2-22 POSTING TRANSACTION EFFECTS

23 2-23 THE T-ACCOUNT After journal entries are prepared, the accountant posts (transfers) the dollar amounts to each account affected by the transaction.

24 2-24 TRANSACTION ANALYSIS ILLUSTRATED

25 2-25 TRANSACTION ANALYSIS ILLUSTRATED

26 2-26 TRANSACTION ANALYSIS ILLUSTRATED After analyzing all transactions from (a) though (f) the balance in our T-accounts will appear as follows:

27 2-27 TRIAL BALANCE The trial balance is a listing of all accounts in the general ledger. The purpose of the trial balance is to make sure the debits and credits are equal before we prepare the balance sheet.

28 2-28 CLASSIFIED BALANCE SHEET In a classified balance sheet assets and liabilities are classified into two categories – current and noncurrent. Current assets are those to be used or turned into cash within the upcoming year, whereas noncurrent assets are those that will last longer than one year. Current liabilities are those obligations to be paid or settled within the next 12 months with current assets.

29 2-29 k CLASSIFIED BALANCE SHEET

30 2-30

31 2-31 KEY RATIO ANALYSIS Current Ratio Current Assets Current Liabilities = The 2011 current ratio for Chipotle: The current ratio for Chipotle shows a high level of liquidity, well above 1.0, and the ratio has varied slightly around the 3.1 level since Chipotle has high growth strategies requiring cash to fund expansion. $501,200 $157,500 =3.182

32 2-32 FOCUS ON CASH FLOWS Companies report cash inflows (+) and outflows (-) over a period in their statement of cash flows.

33 2-33 END OF CHAPTER 2


Download ppt "PowerPoint Authors: Susan Coomer Galbreath, Ph.D., CPA Charles W Caldwell, D.B.A., CMA Jon A. Booker, Ph.D., CPA, CIA Cynthia J. Rooney, Ph.D., CPA CHAPTER."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google