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Physical Unclonable Functions Farzane Salehi Minapour Aida Miralaei MohammadKazem Taram Department of Computer Eng. Sharif University of Technology Spring.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Unclonable Functions Farzane Salehi Minapour Aida Miralaei MohammadKazem Taram Department of Computer Eng. Sharif University of Technology Spring."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Unclonable Functions Farzane Salehi Minapour Aida Miralaei MohammadKazem Taram Department of Computer Eng. Sharif University of Technology Spring 2014

2 Agenda ● Challenges in Hardware Security ● What is PUF ? ● Applications of PUFs ● Classification of PUFs ● PUF Circuits ● Summery ● References Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

3 Challenges=> Conventional Authentication Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT  Conventional Authentication Schemes  Need to store keys  Power and area consuming

4 . Challenges => Store Secrets Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT  Conventional approach to embed secure secrets in IC Non-volatile memory(ROM, Fuse, Flash or EEPROM) Battery-backed RAM  Non-volatile memory technologies are often vulnerable to invasive and non-invasive attack  Adversaries can physically extract secret keys from EEPROM while processor is off

5 Challenges =>expensive tamper proof packs Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT  Storing digital information in a device in a way that is resistant to physical attacks is difficult and expensive. IBM 4758 ●Tamper-proof package containing a secure processor which has a secret key and memory ●Tens of sensors, resistance, temperature, voltage, etc. ●Continually battery-powered ●~ $3500 for a 99 MHz processor and 128MB of memory

6  Power and Area are critical  RFID tag can afford a maximum of 2000 gates for security features  Passive RFIDs  A good cryptographic primitive should be lightweight, occupy little area on silicon and should have very low power consumption. Challenges => Power and Area Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

7 What is PUF?  Physical Unclonable Function (PUF)  Process variations can be turned into a feature rather than a problem Variation is inherent in fabrication process Unique for each physical instance Hard to remove or predict Relative variation increases as the fab process advances Non-silicon PUFs Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

8 Types of PUFs ●Optical PUFs ●Coating and Acoustic PUFs ●Silicon PUFs(SPUF) ○timing and delay information ○easy integrate into ICs

9 Applications of PUF 1) Low cost authentication[1] Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

10 Applications of PUF 2) Cryptographic Key Generator[1] *ECC=Error Correction Code Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

11 Applications of PUF 3) Software Licensing and Anonymous Computation[3] *CPUF=Controlled PUF Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

12 Applications of PUF 3) Software Licensing and Anonymous Computation Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

13 ●0.1% of all challenges do not return a consistent response ●These meta-stable challenges generate responses which can vary unpredictably Applications of PUF 4) Random Number Generation [2]

14 Classification of PUFs ● Strong PUFs ○ Large number of challenge response pairs ○ IC identification and secret key generation ○ E.g arbiter PUF and feed forward arbiter ● Weak PUFs ○ Limited number of challenge response pairs (sometime just single) ○Secret key generation ○ E.g SRAM PUF and butterfly PUF Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

15 PUF Circuits ● Arbiter PUF[4] Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

16 PUF Circuits ● Arbiter PUF ● delay paths with the same layout length ● Simple->attackers can construct a timing model Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

17 PUF Circuits ● construct a k-bit response ● one circuit can be used k times with different inputs ● duplicate the single-output PUF circuit Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

18 PUF Circuits ● Feed Forward Arbiter PUF Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

19 PUF Circuits ● Lightweight Secure PUF[7] Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

20 PUF Circuits ● Ring Oscillator PUF [1] Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

21 PUF Circuits ● Ring Oscillator PUF ● Easier Implementation ● No need for careful layout and routing ● Slower, Larger, more power to generate bits ● Better for FPGAs and secure processors ● Hard to generate many challenge response pairs Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

22 PUF Circuits ● Ring Oscillator PUF ● environmental conditions ● Choose ring oscillator pairs, whose frequencies are far apart=>remove key generation error Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

23 PUF Circuits SRAM ● SRAM PUF[5] Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

24 PUF Circuits ● Butterfly PUF[6] Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

25 Summery ●PUFs are innovative circuit primitives that extract secrets from physical characteristics of integrated circuits (ICs) ●PUFs can enable low-cost authentication of individual ICs ●Generate volatile secret keys for cryptographic operations both symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic operations ●PUF applications and circuits Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

26 References [1] Suh, G.E., Devadas, S.: Physical unclonable functions for device authentication and secret key generation. In: Design Automation Conference, pp. 9{14. ACM Press, New York, NY, USA (2007) [2] C. W. O’Donnell, G. E. Suh, and S. Devadas. PUF-based random number generation. In MITCSAIL CSG Technical Memo 481, November 2004 [3] Gassend, Blaise, et al. "Controlled physical random functions and applications." ACM Transactions on Information and System Security (TISSEC) 10.4 (2008): 3. [4] J.W. Lee, D. Lim, B. Gassend, G. E. Suh, M. van Dijk and S. Devadas, “ A technique to build a secret key in integrated circuits with identification and authentication applications”, in Proceedings of the VLSI Circuits Symposium, June [5] D. E. Holcomb, W. P. Burleson, and K. Fu, “ Power-up SRAM State as an Identifying Fingerprint and Source of True Random Numbers”, in IEEE Transactions on Computers, 58(9): , [6] S. S. Kumar, J. Guajardo, R. Maes, Geert-Jan Schrijen and P. Tuyls, “Extended Abstract: The Butterfly PUF Protecting IP on every FPGA”, in IEEE International Workshop on Hardware- Oriented Security and Trust, HOST [7] M. Majzoobi, F. Koushanfar and M. Potkonjak, “Lightweight Secure PUFs”, in IEEE International Conference on Computer-Aided Design, 2008 Hardware Security and Trust, CE, SUT

27 Thanks


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