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CHAPTER 3 Contamination. Food allergens, and foodborne illness.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 Contamination. Food allergens, and foodborne illness."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 3 Contamination. Food allergens, and foodborne illness

2 Test Your Food Safety Knowledge (True or False) 1.Delivery people and service contractors are possible food defense risks. 2.Milk is a common food allergen. 3.Copper utensils and equipment can cause an illness when used to prepare acidic food. 4.When transferring a cleaning chemical to a spray bottle, it is unnecessary to label the bottle if the chemical is clearly visible. 5.A person with a shellfish allergy who unknowingly eats soup made with clam juice may experience a tightening in the throat. 3-2

3 Test Your Food Safety Knowledge (True or False) 1.Delivery people and service contractors are possible food defense risks. True 2.Milk is a common food allergen. True 3.Copper utensils and equipment can cause an illness when used to prepare acidic food. True 4.When transferring a cleaning chemical to a spray bottle, it is unnecessary to label the bottle if the chemical is clearly visible. False 5.A person with a shellfish allergy who unknowingly eats soup made with clam juice may experience a tightening in the throat. True 3-3

4 Biological contaminant Microbial contamination that may cause foodborne illness. (Bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi & biological toxins) Chemical contaminant Examples: toxic metals, pesticides, cleaning products, sanitizers & equipment lubricants Physical contaminant Foreign object (metal shavings, staples, glass, blades, fingernails, hair, bandages, dirt & bones) Food security Preventing or eliminating the deliberate contamination of food 3-4

5 Toxic metal poisoning Illness caused when toxic metals get into food from utensils or equipment. Food allergy Body’s negative reaction to a particular food protein. Food defense Program developed and implemented by an operation to prevent deliberate contamination of its food. Cross-contact The transfer of an allergen from a food containing an allergen to a food that does not contain the allergen. 3-5

6 Three Types of Foodborne Contaminants Biological Chemical Physical 3-6

7 Biological Toxins May be produced by pathogens found on food May be the result of a chemical contamination May occur naturally in plants or animals May occur as a result of an animal’s diet May be from a fish toxin The toxin may be produced by the fish. Cooking does not destroy the toxin. May be from predatory fish that consume smaller fish that have eaten the toxin. 3-7

8 Foodborne illnesses caused by Fish Toxins Purchase fish from an approved, reputable supplier. Check the temperature of fish upon delivery – 41 0 F (5 0 C) or lower. Refuse product that has been thawed and refrozen. 3-8

9 Mushroom Toxins Present in certain varieties of wild mushrooms Can cause severe illness Are not destroyed by cooking or freezing 3-15

10 Mushroom Toxins Symptoms of intoxication vary depending upon the species. Cooking or freezing will not destroy toxins found in toxic wild mushrooms. Mushrooms should be purchased from approved suppliers. Consumption of toxic, wild mushrooms Toxic mushrooms confused with edible mushrooms Usually collected by amateur mushroom hunters 3-16

11 Mushroom Toxins Establishments that serve wild mushrooms must have: Written buyer specifications that: Identify the mushroom’s common name, its Latin name and its author Ensure the mushroom was identified in its fresh state Indicate the name of the person who identified the mushroom (include qualifications of person) 3-17

12 Plant Toxins Some plants are: Toxic when raw, but safe when cooked Red kidney beans Fava beans Naturally toxic Rhubarb leavesJimsonweed Apricot kernelsWater hemlock Honey from bees that have gathered nectar from mountain laurel or rhododendrons Milk from cows that have eaten snakeroot 3-18

13 Toxic-Metal Poisoning Toxic Metals – Some utensils and equipment contain toxic metals that can contaminate acidic food: Lead. It is found in pewter, which can be used to make pitchers and other tableware Copper. It is sometimes found in cookware, such as pots and pans. Zinc. This metal is found in galvanized items, which are coated with it. Some buckets, tubs, and other items may be galvanized. 3-19

14 Toxic-Metal Poisoning Toxic-metal poisoning can occur when: Utensils or equipment containing these metals are used to store or prep acidic food To prevent toxic-metal poisoning: Only food-grade utensils and equipment should be used to prepare and store food Additional source: Carbonated-beverage dispensers that are improperly installed can create a hazard. If carbonated water is allowed to flow back into the copper supply lines, it could leach copper from the line and contaminate the beverage. 3-20

15 Types of Chemical Contaminants Toxic metalsPesticidesCleaning products Pesticide photo courtesy of the National Pest Management Association 3-21

16 Food Service Chemicals Foodservice Chemicals – Store away from food, utensils, and equipment – Follow manufacturers’ directions for use – Be careful when using while food is being prepped – Label them properly if they are transferred to new containers – Use lubricants made for foodservice equipment 3-22

17 Should only be applied by a licensed pest control operator (PCO) Wrap and store food prior to application Pesticides Do not store food this way 3-23

18 Common Physical Contaminants – Metal shavings from cans – Staples from cartons – Glass from broken light bulbs – Blades from plastic or rubber scrapers – Fingernails, hair, and bandages – Dirt – Bones – Jewelry – Fruit pits 3-24

19 To prevent physical contaminants: Closely inspect the food your receive. Take steps to make sure no physical contaminants can get into it Naturally Occurring Objects That Pose a Hazard Bones 3-25

20 Deliberate Contamination of Food In addition to biological, chemical and physical contaminants, one must be aware of how to prevent deliberate contamination. 3-26

21 Deliberate Contamination of Food To protect food from deliberate contamination: – Train employees to report suspicious activities – Control access to food and prep areas – Eliminate places for intruders to hide inside the facility – Make sure intruders can’t enter the facility in unexpected ways – Develop procedures that address each potential threat and train employees to follow them 3-27

22 Nuclear and radioactive contaminants are an additional concern. The Deliberate Contamination Of Food Threats to Food Security may occur at any level in the food-supply chain. Food may be contaminated by: organized terrorist or activist groups individuals posing as customers current or former employees, vendors or competitors Deliberate Contamination of Food 3-28

23 Key to protecting food: The Deliberate Contamination Of Food * Make it as difficult as possible for tampering to occur. For this reason, a “food defense” program should deal with the points in the operation where food is at risk. Deliberate Contamination of Food 3-29

24 The Deliberate Contamination Of Food Potential threats can come from: Human elements  Verify the identity of applicants – ask for reference, verify them, and check identification  Train employees in food defense and establish awareness in the establishment  Train employees to report suspicious activity  Establish a system to ensure that only one on-duty employees are allowed in work areas  Establish rules for opening the back doors of the facility  Control access to food-production and food-storage areas by nonemployees  Consider a two-employee rule during food preparation – employees should not be alone in food-preparation area  Monitor preparation areas regularly via video cameras, windows, other employees, or management. Deliberate Contamination of Food 3-30

25 The Deliberate Contamination Of Food Potential threats can come from: Interior elements  Limit access to doors, windows, roofs, and food-storage areas  Control entrances and exits to food displays, storage areas, and kitchens.  Eliminate hiding places in all areas of the operation.  Inspect incoming food items, never accept suspect food.  Restrict traffic in food-preparation and storage areas.  Monitor self-service areas, and food items and equipment on display, such as salad bars, condiments, and exposed tableware. Deliberate Contamination of Food 3-31

26 The Deliberate Contamination Of Food Potential threats can come from: Exterior elements  Ensure that the building’s exterior is well lit.  Control access to the ventilation system.  Identify all food suppliers and consider using tamper- evident packages. Check the identification of the delivery person and the scheduled times of delivery, and document those deliveries.  Tell suppliers that food defense is a priority and ask what steps they are taking to ensure their products are secure.  Verify and preapproved all service personnel and providers.  Prevent access to the facility by nonemployees after normal business hours. Deliberate Contamination of Food 3-32

27 The number of people in the United States with food allergies is increasing.  A food allergy is the body’s negative reaction to a particular food protein.  Depending on the person, allergic reactions may occur immediately after the food is eaten or several hours later 3-33

28 Symptoms of an allergic reaction include: Itching in and around the mouth, face, or scalp Tightening in the throat Wheezing or shortness of breath Hives Swelling of the face, eyes, hands, or feet Gastrointestinal symptoms Loss of consciousness Death 3-34

29 Common Food Allergens Milk and dairy products Eggs and egg products Fish Shellfish Wheat Soy and soy products Peanuts Tree nuts 3-35

30 To protect guests with food allergies: Be able to identify menu items containing potential allergens If you are not sure if a guest’s selection is allergen-free, urge them to order a different item Ensure that tableware and utensils used to prepare the guests’ food are allergen free Prepare menu items as simply as possible 3-36

31 Preventing Allergic Reactions Kitchen Staff Don’t cook different types of food in the same fryer Don’t put food on surfaces that touched allergens Clean and sanitize cookware, utensils, and equipment before prepping food 3-37

32 Preventing Allergic Reactions Kitchen Staff continued Wash hands and change gloves before prepping food Assign specific equipment for prepping food for customers with allergies 3-38

33 The Deliberate Contamination Of Food  Chemical contaminants can come from a variety of substances. These include toxic metals, cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, and machine lubricants  To prevent contamination, use only food-grade utensils and equipment to prepare and store food. Store chemicals away from food, utensils, and equipment used for food, and follow manufacturers’ directions for use.  Physical contaminants can occur when objects get into food or when naturally occurring objects, such as bones in a fish fillet, pose a physical hazard  Closely inspect the food received, and take steps to ensure food will not become physically contaminated during its flow through your operation.  People may try to tamper with food using biological, chemical, physical, or even radioactive contaminants.  Identify measures to prevent this by making it difficult as possible to tamper with food. Summary 3-39

34 The Deliberate Contamination Of Food  Many people have food allergies  Managers and Employees should be aware of the most common food allergens, which include milk and dairy products, eggs and eggs products, fish and shellfish, wheat, soy, and soy products, and peanuts and tree nuts.  Both service staff and kitchen staff need to do their part to avoid serving food that can cause an allergic reaction.  Service staff must be able to tell customers about menu items that contain potential allergens.  Kitchen staff must make sure that allergens are not transferred from food containing an allergen to the food served to the customer. Summary continued 3-40


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