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Uncover your strengths. Overview – Adult Assessments Why do adults get assessed? Context of assessments Some definitions How are assessments done? Assessment.

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Presentation on theme: "Uncover your strengths. Overview – Adult Assessments Why do adults get assessed? Context of assessments Some definitions How are assessments done? Assessment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Uncover your strengths

2 Overview – Adult Assessments Why do adults get assessed? Context of assessments Some definitions How are assessments done? Assessment reports Some info on DysGuise

3 Why Do Adults Get An Assessment? For Study: Understand obstacles to learning (including other SpLDs) Access support for learning/exam arrangements

4 Why Do Adults Get An Assessment? For Work : Understand difficulties with work tasks Access support/reasonable adjustments

5 Why Do Adults Get An Assessment? Out of curiosity: Self-awareness and understanding

6 The Wider Context Exam regulations Work demands Equality Act (2010) Other Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLDs)

7 Exam Arrangements - SQA Scottish Qualifications Authority – eg linguistic support; supervised rest breaks; extra time – includes evidence of: Disability/additional needs and the impact on teaching and learning (could include an assessment) Need for current support (from subject teachers) Need for particular arrangement(s) Confirmation that candidate has agreed to the arrangement(s)

8 Exam Arrangements - JCQ (English system) Joint Council for Qualifications – (reader/scribe; prompter; room alone; supervised rest breaks); extra time – evidence of “impairment which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect, giving rise to persistent and significant difficulties” AND at least one speed SS of 84 or less; or (exceptionally) at least two speed SS between 85 and 89; or (very rarely) scores of 90-94 plus formal evidence of disability (assessment needed)

9 Equality Act (2010) Unlawful to discriminate against a person with a ‘protected characteristic’ ‘Disability’ is a protected characteristic ‘Disability’ means having “a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on that person's ability to carry out normal day- to-day activities.” (emphasis added)

10 Equality Act (2010) continued… ‘Substantial’ means more than minor or trivial ‘long-term’ means has lasted – or is likely to last – at least 12 months ‘Normal day-to-day activities’ – there is no definitive list. The 1995 Disability Discrimination Act included ‘memory or ability to concentrate, learn or understand’

11 Equality Act (2010) continued… Guidance re ‘Normal day-to-day activities’ – “things people do on a regular or daily basis including “reading and writing, having a conversation or using the telephone”

12 Equality Act (2010) continued… Guidance re ‘Normal day-to-day activities’ – “general work-related activities, and study and education-related activities, such as interacting with colleagues, following instructions, using a computer, driving, carrying out interviews, preparing written documents, and keeping to a timetable or a shift pattern”

13 Equality Act (2010) continued… Guidance on interpretation of the Equality Act can be found here: _files/EqualityAct/odi_equality_act_guidance_m ay.pdf

14 Spectrum of Difficulties Dyslexia DyspraxiaDyscalculia Dysgraphia AD(H)D Autism Auditory / Visual Processing Difficulties

15 Definitions - Dyslexia “Dyslexia can be described as a continuum of difficulties in learning to read, write and/or spell, which persist despite the provision of appropriate learning opportunities. These difficulties often do not reflect an individual's cognitive abilities and may not be typical of performance in other areas.” (italics added) Scottish Government (2012)

16 Definitions - Dyslexia “Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling. …Characteristic features of dyslexia are difficulties in phonological awareness, verbal memory and verbal processing speed. …Dyslexia occurs across the range of intellectual abilities.” (italics added) British Dyslexia Association (2007)

17 Definition - Dyscalculia “It is a condition that affects the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. Dyscalculic learners may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers and have problems learning number facts and procedures. Even if they do produce a correct answer or use a correct method, they may do so mechanically and without confidence.” (italics added) Department for Education and Skills (2001)

18 Definition - Dyspraxia “Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD), also known as Dyspraxia in the UK, is a common disorder affecting fine or gross motor co-ordination in children and adults…. may present with difficulties with self-care, writing, typing …co- occurring difficulties… include social and emotional difficulties as well as problems with time management, planning and personal organisation.” (italics added) UK Working Definition (2012)

19 Definition - Dysgraphia Difficulties in handwriting: Spatial Neatness of writing (including copying); can also affect drawing Motor Difficulties with fine motor movements; might be able to form letters but is very slow Dyslexic Spelling errors, particularly in free writing; might be able to copy text accurately and at reasonable speed

20 How are assessments done? Cognitive, ‘closed’ (‘intelligence’) tests (WISC IV, WAIS IV) Attainment tests – learned skills eg spelling, reading etc (incl WIAT, WRAT, TOWRE, DASH, CTOPP, GORT, Beery-Buktenica) Qualitative analysis (discussions with candidate, analysis of approach, errors)

21 Why are assessments done like this? Cognitive tests give scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed, and an overall ‘IQ’ score Uneven profile shows if any of the cognitive abilities are adversely affecting the overall score Attainment tests can be compared to the results expected on the basis of cognitive tests

22 Why are assessments done like this? Focus is on finding the person’s strengths, so that a strategy can be found to help with any difficulties Weaker areas can shed light on the reasons a person has been having difficulties Candidate is being compared with himself/herself as well as with others in age group

23 Wechsler Intelligence Scales Indice Verbal Comprehension Indices Scale Score Percentile Confidence Interval Rank 119 90 111-125 High average 112 79 103-119 High average Working Memory 88 21 81- 97 Low average Processing Speed 87 20 80-104 Low average Perceptual Reasoning

24 Attainment tests – cognitive dimension Phonological processing - nuts & bolts of spelling/reading Naming speed Working memory Metacognitive factors – knowing how you know Automaticity - fluency of skills

25 Behavioural Dimension Pattern of errors in reading and spelling Inaccuracies in copying Writing difficulties Avoidance of writing, reading etc Time-management difficulties Needs more time to complete work Discrepancies in performances across different activities

26 Assessment Reports Comply with latest best practice guidance (SpLD Working Group; SASC; Patoss) All sub-test and category scores provided, along with a description of tests used Interpretation of scores

27 Assessment Reports continued Recommendations – for the individual, his or her workplace/place of learning (where relevant) Resources

28 Recommendations Must be: done in the context of a full risk assessment agreed collaboratively reviewed as needs change over time Could help all workers

29 Recommendations Study support and exam arrangements Adjust the environment/the work tasks Improve the individual’s skills

30 Recommendations: study and exams Help with structuring work Notes/slides in advance of class Extra time Use of laptop/access to reader/scribe Disabled Students’ Allowance:

31 Recommendations: environment/tasks Allow use of strategies already developed Workload planning Extra time

32 Recommendations: environment/tasks Use of laptop/assistive software: Microsoft Ease of Access (via control panel) Inspiration (mind mapping): Read & Write Gold:

33 Recommendations: environment/tasks Access to Work: buy/access-to-work/

34 Recommendations: improve skills Working memory training – CogMed d-Working-Memory-Training.aspx?tab=9 Evidence-based; improves memory and insight Structured Done through CogMed coach Available through DysGuise

35 Recommendations: improve skills Done through CogMed coach Available through DysGuise CogMed demonstration available on YouTube:

36 About DysGuise Ltd Testing for specific learning difficulties (dyslexia, dyscalculia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia) Director: Dr Jennie Guise Principal Advisor: Dr Gavin Reid: Educational Consultant: Moira Thomson

37 About DysGuise Ltd, cont’d Office: Hanover Street, Edinburgh Consulting rooms: Glasgow, Stirling, Ayr 12 trained Associates across Scotland Full cognitive assessment focusing on uncovering strengths and providing targeted strategies for teaching and learning, and work activities

38 For further information: Website: http://www.dysguise.com Email: Tel: (0131) 629 8269

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