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Histology of Skin Terminology of Skin Lesions. EPIDERMIS ● keratinocytes (5 layers) ● melanocytes ● Langerhans cells ● Merkel cells (basement membrane)

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Presentation on theme: "Histology of Skin Terminology of Skin Lesions. EPIDERMIS ● keratinocytes (5 layers) ● melanocytes ● Langerhans cells ● Merkel cells (basement membrane)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Histology of Skin Terminology of Skin Lesions

2 EPIDERMIS ● keratinocytes (5 layers) ● melanocytes ● Langerhans cells ● Merkel cells (basement membrane) DERMIS ● fibroblasts ● collagen, elastic fibres + ground substance ● sebaceous glands ● sweat glands ● hair follicles + m.arrector ● nerve fibres + special nerve corpuscle ● blood and lymph vessels SUBCUTANEOUS FATTY TISSUE (hypodermis) ● lobes of fatty tissue ● blood vessels ● lymph vessels

3 Description of Skin Lesions Primarysecondaryeflorescence) Primary and secondary lesions (eflorescence) single or multiple grouped (multiple lesions grouped in one area) disseminated (exanthema – widespread discrete lesions) arranged (in line, in ring, snake-like…)

4 Primary Lesion MACULE MACULE (spot) PATCH any flat lesion, circumscribed discoloration, size < 1cm PATCH = larger macule with some surface changes

5 Primary Lesion PAPULE PAPULE any elevated lesion, size < 1cm, various color, papules may become confluent and form plaques

6 Primary Lesion NODUL any elevated, circumcribed lesion, size > 1cm in both diameter and depth

7 Primary Lesion URTICARIA (weal, hives, nettle-rash) a firm plaque resulting from dermal oedema, it is transient - may last only a few hours a firm plaque resulting from dermal oedema, it is transient - may last only a few hours

8 Primary Lesion VESICLE BULLA - VESICLE (blister) a fluid-filled lesion, size 1 cm in diameter

9 Primary Lesion PUSTULE PUSTULE a circumscribed collection of leukocytes and fluid, size < 1cm

10 Secondary Lesions scale eschar (necrosis) fissure excoriation crust erosion ulcus

11 Secondary Lesion CRUST a collection of dried serum, blood or pus, and cellular debris

12 Secondary Lesion SCALE (squama) an excess dead keratinocytes that are produced by abnormal keratinization and shedding, scale are dry and usually whitish or yellowish

13 Secondary Lesion ESCHAR ESCHAR (necrosis) (e.g. bedsore, burn…)

14 Secondary Lesion FISSURE a linear split in epidermis or dermis, with sharply defined vertical walls, over a joint or along a skin crease (skin isn´t flexible due to mycosis, eczema, psoriasis…)

15 Secondary Lesions EROSION EROSION a partial loss of epidermis, heals without scarring EXCORIATION EXCORIATION a localized damage to the skin due to scratching

16 Secondary Lesion ULCER ULCER a full thickness loss of epidermis end dermis, which will heal with scarring

17 : Lesions can be: single or multiple grouped (multiple lesions grouped in one area… …are confluent in one area) disseminated (exanthema = widespread discrete lesions) arranged (lesions form some configuration – e.g. in line, in ring, snake-like…)

18 Arrangements of Lesions linear configuration moniliform configuration serpiginous configuration

19 zosteriform configuration herpetiform conf. geografical configuration Arrangements of Lesions

20 circinate, semicircinate configuration iris form (concentric circles) annular conf. Arrangements of Lesions

21 Other Changes …erythroderma, erythema atrophy, lichenification papilomatosis, pachydermatosis hyperpigmentation, depigmentation scars….

22 Describing of Lesions:  sites involved and distribution (a-symmetrical, predilection sites; arrangement, single or multiple)  size (mm, cm)  shape (round, oval, irregular, pedunculated…)  surface features (smooth, rough, shiny, dull, squamous, uneven…)  demarcation - border of lesion (well defined or circumscribed, poorly defined…)  color (pink, red, purple, white, brown, yellowish…)  consistency (soft, firm, normal, hard, elastic…)  surroundings (with inflammation, normal…)

23 Blisters, pustules:  blister roof  blister roof – thin, thick, flaccid… content  content – clear, turbid, haemorrhagic…Ulcers:  base  base – deep x shallow, uneven, clear, coated, with granulation tissue…  edge  edge – undermined, collowed, flat, adjacent, with epitelization…


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