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©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial Education1 Cosmetology Skin Diseases and Disorders
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders2 Performance Objectives Upon completion of this assignment, the student will be able to recognize diseases and disorders of the skin to the satisfaction of the instructor.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders3 Specific Objectives 1. Define key terms associated with the lesson. 2. Identify six signs of infection. 3. Explain skin lesions. 4. Identify primary skin lesions. 5. Identify secondary skin lesions 6. Identify pigmentation abnormalities. 7. Identify disorders of the sebaceous glands. 8. Identify disorders of the sudoriferous glands. 9. Identify other inflammatory disorders. 10. Compare/Contrast difference between a disease and a disorder. 11. Determine conditions that are not treatable in a salon.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders4 Key Terms Allergy: sensitivity caused from contact with a substance; may be accompanied with itching, swelling, or blisters. Inflammation: objective symptom (one you can see) with redness, pain, swelling, and temperature. Chronic: term used to identify conditions that are often and habitual. Acute: term used to identify conditions that are short and severe. Contagious: an infectious or communicable disease by contact. Seasonal Disease: influenced by weather.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders5 Key Terms Etiology: study of cause of disease. Pathology: study of disease. Prognosis: medical opinion of the outcome of a condition. Occupational Disorders: occur in different types of employment; allergic reaction to certain chemicals or cosmetics. Symptoms: signs of disease divided into two categories. 1. Subjective: those you feel (itching, burning, or pain). 2. Objective: those you see (pimples or inflammation).
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders6 Signs of Infection The six signs of infection are: Pain Swelling Redness Fever Throbbing Discharge Services should not be given when an infection is present
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders7 Skin Lesions Skin lesions are abnormal changes in the structure of an organ or tissue. Lesions are divided into three categories: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Cosmetologists are only concerned with primary and secondary lesions
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders8 Primary Skin Lesions Macules: discoloration appearing on the skin’s surface. 1. Freckles are an example of macules. Lentigines: technical term for freckles. Papules: hardened red elevations of the skin in which not fluid is present. 1. A large papule is known as a tubercle. 2. A pimple is and example of a papule. Vesicles: fluid filled elevations in the skin caused by localized accumulation of fluids or blood just below the epidermis. 1. Macules and papules may cause vesicles
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders9 Primary Skin Lesions Herpes Simplex: also known as fever blister, is a contagious, chronic condition caused by a single vesicle or a group of vesicles on a red swollen base. 1. Appears on the lips, nostrils, or other parts of the face. 2. Services should not be performed when herpes simplex is present Bulla: lesion, and larger vesicles with a clean watery fluid 1. Located below the skin. 2. Occur in second-degree burns. Pustules: small elevations of skin; similar to vesicles, but contains pus. 1. They are white or yellow in color and may be surrounded by a reddish inflamed border. 2. An example of a pustule is a pimple with pus.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders10 Primary Skin Lesions Wheals: solid formation above the skin, sometimes caused by an insect bite or allergic reaction. 1. May be accompanied with itching or tingling. 2. An example of a wheal is hives or an insect bite. Tumors: solid masses in the skin, which may be soft or hard 1. An example of a small tumor is nodule.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders11 Secondary Skin Lesions A secondary skin lesion is progressed stage of a disease. Need to be treated by a dermatologist of a physician. Scales: dead cells of the uppermost layer of the epidermis that shed. 1. Psoriasis and dandruff are examples of scales Psoriasis: round, dry patches of skin, covered with rough silvery scales. 1. It is chronic, but not contagious. Crust: dried masses that come from the remains of an oozing sore. 1. An example of crust if a scab on a sore
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders12 Secondary Skin Lesions Excoriations: mechanical abrasions or injury to the epidermis. 1. Occur when an insect bites or scab is scratched. 2. An example of an excoriation is a scratch. Fissure: cracks in the skin. 1. Cracks or lines that go deep into the underlying dermis 2. Occur when skin is exposed to wind, cold, or water and loses its flexibility 3. An example of a fissure is a chapped lip. Scars: forms from a lesion when injury extends deep into the dermis. Keloids: thick scars. Ulcers: open lesions that are visible on the skin surface. 1.Services should not be performed when ulcers are present
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders13 Pigmentation Abnormalities Conditions with little or too much color in certain areas of the skin. Melanoderma: hyperpigmentation caused by over activity of the melanocytes in the epidermis. 1.Examples of melanoderma are chloasma and lentigines. Chloasma: group of brownish macules usually on the hands and face 1. Also known as liver spots. Moles: small, brown pigmented spots that may be elevated. 1. Some contain hair, but should not be removed 2. A physician should be seen if there are any changes in the appearance of a mole. 3. Moles are the cause of some skin cancers.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders14 Pigmentation Abnormalities Naevus: birthmark or a congenital mole. Leukoderma: hypopigmentation (lack of pigmentation) of the skin caused by a decrease in melanocytes. Albinism: congenital failure of the skin to produce melanin pigment. 1. A person with albinism has very fair skin, white hair, and pink eyes. 2. They are sensitive to light and sun. Vitiligo: oval or odd shaped patches of white skin that do not have normal pigmentation. 1. Usually appear on the face, hands, and neck. 2. Michael Jackson says this is the disease that he has.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders15 Disorders of the Sebaceous Glands Comedones: also known as blackheads; masses of sebum (oil) locked inside the hair follicle. Milia: also know as whiteheads; caused by accumulation of hardened sebum beneath the skin. Acne: chronic inflammatory disorder of the sebaceous glands. 1. Acne occurs in two stages: acne simplex and acne vulgaris. 2. A person with acne vulgaris should seek a physician. Rosacea: also known as acne rosacea; a chronic inflammatory congestion of the cheeks and nose; papules and pustules are sometimes present. 1. Services should not be performed when rosacea is present.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders16 More Disorders of the Sebaceous Glands Asteatosis: dry, scaly skin caused by low sebum production. Seborrhea: excessive secretion of the sebaceous glands. Steatoma: also know as a sebaceous cyst or wen; subcutaneous tumor of the sebaceous glands, filled with sebum. Furuncles: also known as boil; appears in the dermis and the epidermis and are caused by acute staphylococcal infection. 1. Usually are hair follicles infections. Carbuncles: larger than furuncles; located above and below the skin and are caused by acute staphylococcal infection of several adjoining hair follicle.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders17 Disorders of the Sudoriferous Glands Bromidrosis: foul-smelling perspirations. Anhidrosis: lack of perspiration; caused by fever or disease. Hyperhidrosis: over-production of perspiration; caused by excessive heat or body weakness. Miliaria Rubra: acute eruption of small red vesicles; caused by excessive heat. Key Point: Services should not be performed when miliaria rubra is present.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders18 Other Inflammatory Disorders Services should not be performed when dermatitis is present. Eczema: dry or moist lesion with inflammation of the skin. 1. Services should not be performed when eczema is present.
©2003 Texas Trade and Industrial EducationCosmetology I: Skin Diseases and Disorders19 Summary Cosmetologists come in contact with skin every day. However, they are not dermatologists or physicians who diagnose and treat skin diseases and disorders. Therefore, it is very important that they are able to recognize different skin conditions which would determine whether or not services can be rendered in the salon.
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