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Chapter 14: Resources. Why are resources being depleted? Two kinds of natural resources are especially valuable to humans Two kinds of natural resources.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14: Resources. Why are resources being depleted? Two kinds of natural resources are especially valuable to humans Two kinds of natural resources."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14: Resources

2 Why are resources being depleted? Two kinds of natural resources are especially valuable to humans Two kinds of natural resources are especially valuable to humans –Minerals –Energy resources We depend on abundant, low-cost energy and minerals to run our industries, transport ourselves, and keep our homes comfortable We depend on abundant, low-cost energy and minerals to run our industries, transport ourselves, and keep our homes comfortable Problem Problem –MDCs want to preserve current standards of living while LDCs are struggling to attain a better standard

3 Energy Resources Historically people have relied primarily on power supplied by themselves or by animals Historically people have relied primarily on power supplied by themselves or by animals –Called animate power Energy from flowing water and burning biomass fuel supplemented animate power Energy from flowing water and burning biomass fuel supplemented animate power –Biomass = Wood, plant material, and animal waste Wood, plant material, and animal waste During the Industrial Revolution, MDCs converted to inanimate power During the Industrial Revolution, MDCs converted to inanimate power –Generated from machines

4 Energy Resources MDCs consume 3x the amount of energy that LDCs do MDCs consume 3x the amount of energy that LDCs do North Americans are the heaviest per capita consumers of energy North Americans are the heaviest per capita consumers of energy –Use ¼ world’s energy –Have 1/12 world’s population Three substances provide 5/6ths of the world’s energy Three substances provide 5/6ths of the world’s energy –Coal –Petroleum –Natural gas All three are fossil fuels All three are fossil fuels –Residue of plants and animals that were buried millions of years ago Two causes for concern Two causes for concern –Supply is finite –Distributed unevenly

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6 Fossil Fuels Renewable energy Renewable energy –Essentially unlimited supply and is not depleted Hydroelectric, geothermal, fusion, wind, and solar energy Hydroelectric, geothermal, fusion, wind, and solar energy Non-renewable energy Non-renewable energy –Forms so slowly that it cannot be renewed Fossil fuels Fossil fuels Proven Reserves Proven Reserves –Amount of energy remaining in deposits of fossil fuels Potential Reserves Potential Reserves –Energy in deposits that are undiscovered but thought to exist Undiscovered oil fields Enhanced recovery from current fields Unconventional resources –Shale, oil sands

7 Uneven Distribution of Fossil Fuels Two important inequalities in global distribution of fossil fuels Two important inequalities in global distribution of fossil fuels –Some regions have abundant sources, others do not –The heaviest consumers are in different regions that most of the reserves Leads to global instability Leads to global instability Uneven distribution Uneven distribution –Coal China- 39% U.S.- 16% –Petroleum Southwest Asia- 40% Central Asia- 15% –Natural gas Russia- 25% Consumption Consumption –U.S. imports more than ½ of their petroleum Japan 90% –LDC’s quickly “catching up”

8 Control of World Petroleum Most intense conflict over energy will be centered on supply of petroleum Most intense conflict over energy will be centered on supply of petroleum OPEC OPEC –At 1 st western countries set oil prices and paid southwest Asian countries a small % of oil profits –Government policies changed in 1970s in SW Asian countries –Several LDC countries containing petroleum resources created OPEC in 1960 –OPEC was angry at North America and Europe for supporting Israel (1970s) Led to embargo Lifted in 1974, but raised prices –Caused severe economic problems in MDCs –LDCS hurt even more! Changing Supply and Demand Changing Supply and Demand –The price of oil settled by 1980s, 1990s –U.S. reduced its dependency on foreign imports

9 Mineral Resources Earth has 92 elements BUT 99% of the crust contains just 8 elements Earth has 92 elements BUT 99% of the crust contains just 8 elements –Oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium 8 most common combine with rare ones to create 3,000 different minerals 8 most common combine with rare ones to create 3,000 different minerals Each mineral is a potential resource Each mineral is a potential resource Minerals are either Minerals are either –Metallic Have properties that are valuable for machinery, vehicles, industry –Non-metallic 90% are building stones Also used for fertilizer Examples –Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Sulfur Mineral deposits are not distributed evenly Mineral deposits are not distributed evenly –Australia and China rank has two leading producers

10 Key Issue #2- Why Are Resources Being Polluted? Pollution occurs when more waste is added than a resource can accommodate Pollution occurs when more waste is added than a resource can accommodate Types of pollution: Types of pollution: –Air –Water –Land

11 Air Pollution Definition: Definition: –Concentration of trace substances at a greater level than occurs in average air Earth’s atmosphere (at ground level) is 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 1% Argon Earth’s atmosphere (at ground level) is 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 1% Argon Most common human activities that cause pollution Most common human activities that cause pollution –Motor vehicles, industry, and power plants Most common air pollutants Most common air pollutants –Carbon monoxide, Sulfur dioxide Air pollution concerns geographers at three levels Air pollution concerns geographers at three levels –Global –Regional –local

12 Air Pollution Global Global –Global warming Pollution may be causing Earth’s temperature to rise Pollution may be causing Earth’s temperature to rise –Greenhouse effect Anticipated temp increase on Earth caused by carbon dioxide trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface Anticipated temp increase on Earth caused by carbon dioxide trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface Can have devastating consequences, even if only a few degrees Can have devastating consequences, even if only a few degrees –Global-scale ozone damage Stratosphere contains ozone gases Stratosphere contains ozone gases –Absorbs dangerous UV rays Threatened by pollutants called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Threatened by pollutants called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Regional Regional –At regional scale, air pollution may damage vegetation and water supply through acid deposition Definition: tiny droplets of sulfuric acid and nitric acid form and return to Earth’s surface Leads to acid precipitation Local Local –Urban air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons particulates

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14 Water Pollution American’s consume 5,300 liters (1,400 gallons) of water per day American’s consume 5,300 liters (1,400 gallons) of water per day Water Pollution Sources Water Pollution Sources –Water-using industries –Municipal sewage –Agriculture Impact on Aquatic Life Impact on Aquatic Life –Pollution reduces Oxygen level Wastewater and Disease Wastewater and Disease –Most MDC’s have passed Clean Water laws –Major impact Ex. Thames River- London, England –LDCs have less capacity to treat wastewater Sewage flows into rivers Leads to high rates of diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid, and Dysentery

15 Land Pollution Solid-Waste Disposal Solid-Waste Disposal –The sanitary landfill is most common strategy for disposal of waste in the United States More than ½ of waste disposed this way More than ½ of waste disposed this way Number of landfills has declined since 1990s Number of landfills has declined since 1990s –Better compaction methods –Recycling and incineration have also increased Can lead to air pollution Can lead to air pollution Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste –Disposing is difficult Includes heavy metals, PCB oils, cyanides, solvents, acids, and caustics –Can leach into soil, poisonous Must report to EPA Placed in containers and buried

16 Renewing Resources Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy –Not renewable but seen as alternative –Advantage Small amount of material releases large amount of energy Small amount of material releases large amount of energy –Supplies 1/6 th world’s energy Mostly in MDCs Mostly in MDCs –Problems Accidents Accidents Radioactive waste Radioactive waste Material for nucs Material for nucs Limited uranium supply Limited uranium supply Cost/ distribution Cost/ distribution Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Fusion –Some nuclear power issues could be addressed by fusion –Definition: Fusing of hydrogen atoms to helium –Can only occur at high temps

17 Leading Renewable Energy Sources Biomass Biomass –More than ½ of renewable energy Wood is a renewable resource Wood is a renewable resource Crops such as corn, sugarcane, and soybeans can be used for energy Crops such as corn, sugarcane, and soybeans can be used for energy –Limited use Energy to grow crops = to output Energy to grow crops = to output Forest reduced Forest reduced Serves other purposes already such a food, clothing, shelter Serves other purposes already such a food, clothing, shelter Hydroelectric Power Hydroelectric Power –Use of moving water to create energy Has been used throughout history Has been used throughout history –2 nd most popular source of electricity –Can be environmental disaster China – Three Gorges Dam China – Three Gorges Dam Wind Power Wind Power –Historical source of power –Benefits Less change to environment Greater potential for increased use –Problems Noisy Lethal to birds Visual blight Geothermal Energy Geothermal Energy –Energy from hot water or steam –Prominent in volcanic areas –Lots of research currently underway

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19 Solar Energy The ultimate renewable source is solar energy The ultimate renewable source is solar energy –Currently supply 1% of electricity to U.S. Potential is limitless Potential is limitless –Sun’s estimated life = 5 billion years Sun’s energy is free, can’t be owned, bought, or sold Sun’s energy is free, can’t be owned, bought, or sold –Does not damage the environment or cause pollution Active solar energy Active solar energy –Collect solar energy and convert it either to heat energy or to electricity Example: –Solar panels Passive solar energy Passive solar energy –Capture of solar energy without any devices Example: –South-facing windows –greenhouses

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21 Renewable Energy in Motor Vehicles Most serious challenge to reducing dependence on non- renewable energy is the motor vehicle Most serious challenge to reducing dependence on non- renewable energy is the motor vehicle Batteries Batteries –Battery-powered, electric cars popular in 1900s –Shortcomings Limited range Limited range Costs more to operate Costs more to operate Recharging can take several hours Recharging can take several hours Led to creation of hybrids Led to creation of hybrids Biofuels Biofuels –Ethanol can be produced from biomass (corn in U.S., sugarcane in Brazil) –Takes a lot of energy, is source of food Hydrogen fuel cells Hydrogen fuel cells –Convert hydrogen and oxygen into water, producing electricity and heat in the process Can be used to power motors or electrical devices –Obtaining hydrogen a problem Have to separate it –Hydrogen fuel used to lift shuttles into orbit, power shuttle’s electrical systems –For motor vehicle use would require a new distribution system

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23 Recycling Definition: Definition: –The separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of the unwanted material Increased in U.S. from 1970 from 7% to 33% in 2007 Increased in U.S. from 1970 from 7% to 33% in 2007 Main items recycled Main items recycled –Paper, plastic, glass, aluminum

24 Sustainable Development Definition: Definition: –Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Conservation Conservation –definition: Sustainable use and management of natural resources such as wildlife, water, air, and Earth’s resources to meet human’s needs Sustainable use and management of natural resources such as wildlife, water, air, and Earth’s resources to meet human’s needs Preservation Preservation –Definition: Maintenance of resources in their present condition Sustainability Sustainability –Difficult to balance environment with concern for economic growth –Example: China Has 16 of 20 most polluted cities in the world

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