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1 Descriptive Grammar of English Part 1: Phonetics and Phonology dr Iwona Kokorniak (with contribution from dr Jarosław Weckwerth) 29th November 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Descriptive Grammar of English Part 1: Phonetics and Phonology dr Iwona Kokorniak (with contribution from dr Jarosław Weckwerth) 29th November 2008."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Descriptive Grammar of English Part 1: Phonetics and Phonology dr Iwona Kokorniak (with contribution from dr Jarosław Weckwerth) 29th November 2008

3 2 Monophthongs Steady-state vowels: The same quality throughout Also known as pure vowels Or monophthongs

4 3 Diphthongs Diphthongs: the quality changes ‘Two vowels in one’ Smooth movement from one vowel to another

5 4 Diphthongs aɪaɪ starting point ending point (offglide)

6 5 Diphthongs: falling & rising Prominence (=importance) falls or rises Rising vs falling diphthongs ju: vs a ɪ more important

7 6 Closing & centring diphth. Direction of movement Closing diphthongs (from more open to closer) a ɪ e ɪ ɔɪ a ʊ ə ʊ, o ʊ

8 7 Closing & centring diphth. Centring diphthongs (towards the centre, BrEng) eə ɪ ə ʊ ə

9 8 English vowels: /a ɪ / Typical spellings: by try rhyme ba ɪ tra ɪ ra ɪ m

10 9 English vowels: /a ɪ / Typical spellings: high night fight ha ɪ na ɪ t fa ɪ t

11 10 English vowels: /a ɪ / Less typical spellings: I eye buy guy height a ɪ ba ɪ ga ɪ ha ɪ t

12 11 English vowels: /a ɪ / a ɪ j Polish

13 12 English vowels: /e ɪ / Typical spellings: FACE lane wage fe ɪ s le ɪ n we ɪ d ʒ

14 13 English vowels: /e ɪ / Typical spellings: day stay Wayne de ɪ ste ɪ we ɪ n

15 14 English vowels: /e ɪ / Typical spellings: main wait rain me ɪ n we ɪ t re ɪ n

16 15 English vowels: /e ɪ / Less typical spellings: eight veil weight e ɪ t ve ɪ l we ɪ t

17 16 English vowels: /e ɪ / Less typical spellings: rein reign they obey re ɪ n re ɪ n ðe ɪ ə ' be ɪ

18 17 English vowels: /e ɪ / Less typical spellings: great steak break gre ɪ t ste ɪ k bre ɪ k

19 18 English vowels: /e ɪ / e ɪ j ɛ

20 19 English vowels: / ɔɪ / Typical spellings: CHOICE voice point t ʃɔɪ s v ɔɪ s p ɔɪ nt

21 20 English vowels: / ɔɪ / Typical spellings: coin joint android k ɔɪ n d ʒɔɪ nt ' ændr ɔɪ d

22 21 English vowels: / ɔɪ / Typical spellings: boy oyster toy b ɔɪ ' ɔɪ stə t ɔɪ

23 22 English vowels: / ɔɪ / ɪ j ɔ ɔ

24 23 English vowels: /a ʊ / Typical spellings: MOUTH out count ma ʊ θ a ʊ t ka ʊ nt

25 24 English vowels: /a ʊ / Typical spellings: allow cow now ə ' la ʊ ka ʊ na ʊ

26 25 English vowels: /a ʊ / Typical spellings: row (‘quarrel’) owl ra ʊ a ʊ l

27 26 English vowels: /a ʊ / ʊ w a

28 27 English vowels: /ə ʊ, o ʊ / Typical spellings: GOAT road soap gə ʊ t rə ʊ d sə ʊ p

29 28 English vowels: /ə ʊ, o ʊ / Typical spellings: both folk roll role bo ʊ θ fo ʊ k ro ʊ l ro ʊ l

30 29 English vowels: /ə ʊ, o ʊ / Typical spellings: so old hold home sə ʊ ə ʊ ld hə ʊ ld hə ʊ m

31 30 English vowels: /ə ʊ, o ʊ / Typical spellings: toe doe foe to ʊ do ʊ fo ʊ

32 31 English vowels: /ə ʊ, o ʊ / Typical spellings: know low blow row (‘use oars’; ‘line’) nə ʊ lə ʊ blə ʊ rə ʊ

33 32 English vowels: /ə ʊ, o ʊ / Important: don’t won’t də ʊ nt wo ʊ nt

34 33 English vowels: /ə ʊ, o ʊ / ʊ ə Br o Am

35 34 English vowels: /ə ʊ, o ʊ / Used in the same words Only phonetic quality different In BrEng, first element is central not rounded

36 35 English vowels: / ɪ ə, eə, ʊ ə/ In non-rhotic varieties only E.g. standard BrEng Rhotic varieties have ɪ r, er, ʊ r

37 36 English vowels: / ɪ ə/ Typical spellings: NEAR fear tear beard (‘drop of liquid’) n ɪ ə f ɪ ə t ɪ ə b ɪ əd

38 37 English vowels: / ɪ ə/ Typical spellings: deer beer steer career d ɪ ə b ɪ ə st ɪ ə kə ' r ɪ ə

39 38 English vowels: / ɪ ə/ Less typical spellings: Weir weird fierce w ɪ ə w ɪ əd f ɪ əs

40 39 English vowels: / ɪ ə/ Sometimes without idea aɪ'dɪəaɪ'dɪə

41 40 English vowels: /eə/ Typical spellings: SQUARE care aware skweə keə ə ' weə

42 41 English vowels: /eə/ Typical spellings: air fair chair eə feə t ʃ eə

43 42 English vowels: /eə/ Typical spellings: bear pear wear tear (‘rip’) beə peə weə teə

44 43 English vowels: /eə/ Less typical spellings: where there they’re their weə ðeə ðeə ðeə

45 44 English vowels: /eə/ These days in BrEng Usually a monophthong Alternative symbol e.g. Collins & Mees 2003, Upton et al / ɛ :/

46 45 Some niceties Where were you? Br weə w ɜ : ju Am wer w ɝ : ju

47 46 Some niceties where were wear weir weə w ɜ : weə w ɪ ə

48 47 Some niceties fair – fur – fare – fir – fear fair, fare fer fir, fur f ɝ : fear f ɪ r

49 48 Some niceties stair – stir – stare – steer stair, stare ster stir st ɝ : steer st ɪ r

50 49 Some niceties bear – bare – beer – burr bear, bare beə beer b ɪ ə burr b ɜ :

51 50 Some niceties beard – bird Br b ɪ əd b ɜ :d Am b ɪ rd b ɝ :d

52 51 English vowels: / ʊ ə/ Typical spellings: CURE pure poor kj ʊ ə pj ʊ ə p ʊ ə kj ɔː pj ɔ : p ɔ :

53 52 English centring diphtongs ɪ e ə ʊ

54 53 Potential diphthongs FLEECE and GOOSE can also be diphthongs Somewhat similar to Polish kij, dół

55 54 Potential diphthongs FLEECE may be [ ɪ i] ɪ i

56 55 Potential diphthongs GOOSE may be [ ʊ u] ʊ u

57 56 Triphthongs If a closing diphthong is followed by /ə/ E.g. power fire pa ʊ ə fa ɪ ə

58 57 Why is it good to know? English has many more vowels than Polish: problem! Practically all are different: problem!

59 58 Why is it good to know? It is possible to find the right values by experimentation If you know what you’re doing

60 59 Why is it good to know? You need to stop & think......about the articulatory descriptions......try them out...


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