Overview of Slideshow Background of author Historical Figures/Parallels Timing of publication
Author George Orwell Birth Name – Eric Arthur Blair Born in India 1903 School at Eton in England Youth spent in vastly different places/classes
Orwell cont. Also wrote 1984 and many essays Orwellian : Of, relating to, or evocative of the works of George Orwell, especially the satirical novel 1984, which depicts a futuristic totalitarian state.
Utopia Coined by Sir Thomas Moore A utopia is defined as an ideally perfect place, especially in its social, moral, and political aspects So…what’s wrong with that?
Anti-utopian Literature Writing which reveals the dark side of utopian thinking Setting tends to be a dystopia
Anti-Utopian Theory Utopian thinking is not only unrealistic It is dangerous and destructive Orwell’s books are based on historical examples of this happening
Controversy of Publication Animal Farm finished in ‘44 Not published in UK until August of ’45 Book satirizes some world leaders What else was going on at that time?
1945 Germany surrenders in April of ’45 Potsdam July 1945 August brings A- bomb and the end of the war in the Pacific Book considered a literary attack on a former ally.
A Very Brief Look at Three Political/Economic Systems Socialism Capitalism Communism
Socialism Various types of theories or systems which the ownership/ operation/distribution of goods and services is owned by the community rather than individuals.
Socialism Today Sweden (along with many Western European countries) has subscribed to many different versions of socialism
Capitali $ m Economic system in which most means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated. Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations (1776) Meritocracy and the “invisible hand”
Capitali $ m Smith: “It is not from the benevolence of the butcher the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest.”
Capitalism Today The U.S. is a prime example of a market-driven, capitalist economy
Communism Same basic system as socialism, but with the idea that only revolution will create a communist state. Expansionism/Military might is integral.
Communism Today Exists in varied forms North Korea is an extreme example of a Maoist/Communis t state Most have evolved away from true Marxism Kim Jong-Il Golfing Kim Jong-Il Golfing
Key Historical Figures Characters in Animal Farm mirror real people/events/things Orwell intends for us to examine these connections Satire of post-revolution struggle for order & power
Karl Marx Wrote The Communist Manifesto with Frederick Engels Published in 1848 Deemed the “father” of communism “Workers of the world unite”
Marx’s Flaw The vacuum of power left by a communist revolution needs to be filled Flaw: The assumed leaders would relinquish power back to the people
Leon Trotsky Born Lev Bronstein Charismatic, intellectual, and strategic leader of Bolsheviks Exiled by Stalin upon Lenin’s death Executed in Mexico City in 1940 Scapegoat of Stalinists
Vladimir Lenin Born Vladimir Ulyanov First head of Communist Party in Soviet Union Dies in 1924 Stalin takes over
Joseph Stalin Born Joseph Dzugashvili Assumes power of Soviet Union by fierce political will Maintains power through fear, cult of personality, and ruthless tactics Totalitarian leader
Stalin’s Propaganda Look carefully at the photograph to the right Notice the empty stairwell
Stalin’s Propaganda Look carefully at the photograph to the right Notice the man in the stairwell Who is it? Why was he erased from history?
1924-1953 Stalinist Regime Era of profound totalitarian brutality and betrayal of Marx’s ideas The Great Purge, Ukrainian Famine, the Gulags Poster says, “The leader and teacher of humanity in the fight for peace, democracy and socialism." Hussein Purge Hussein Purge Stalin Ovation Stalin Ovation
Final Quotes “The most radical revolutionary will become a conservative the day after the revolution.” - Hannah Arendt
Final Quotes Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. -Lord Acton