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TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Origins of the Vietnam War: Chapter 22, Section 1 Curriculum Standard: Analyze.

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Presentation on theme: "TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Origins of the Vietnam War: Chapter 22, Section 1 Curriculum Standard: Analyze."— Presentation transcript:

1 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Origins of the Vietnam War: Chapter 22, Section 1 Curriculum Standard: Analyze the causes, course and consequences of the Vietnam War.

2 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Chapter 22, Section 1: Origins of the Vietnam War ( ) A – America and the War for Indochina Q: How did President Eisenhower justify continued American support for the French? B – Red Heading: The Domino Theory and Dien Bien Phu (page 726) Q: Examine the two photos above your section and write a brief paragraph explaining what you think the fighting between the French and the Vietminh might have been like. C – America Opposes Communism in Vietnam (page 727) Q: How did the United States help the South Vietnamese government resist communism? D – Johnson Leads the Nation Into War (page 728) Q: What was the significance of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution? E – Summary of Section Q: Why did the United States become involved in Vietnam? First, read your section in your group (A-E). Define any key terms in your section, take about 3 to 4 main points (detailed) summarizing your section and answer your focus question (15 mins). Then, your teams will change (1-5), each member gets a few minutes to explain their section of the text to their new members while the others take notes (20 mins). There will be an exit ticket containing questions from each section of the text. (5 mins)

3 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Focus Question Answers: A. He argued that the United States was containing the spread of communism in the region. B. Up to Students - C. It formed SEATO with seven other countries, provided economic and military aid to the anticommunist government of Diem, and sent Special Forces troops to advise and fight alongside the army of South Vietnam. D. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Johnson the authority to send troops to South Vietnam without congressional approval. E. The United States initially became involved in Vietnam to aid the French. Then, the United States gradually committed more and more troops to prevent communism from spreading in Southeast Asia.

4 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Individual Exit Ticket – worth 10 formative points: 1.Who led the movement for Vietnam’s independence from French rule? a. a Vietnamese communist named Ho Chi Minh b. an American communist named Harry S. Truman c. a Cambodian communist named Ho Chi Minh d. a French communist named Ho Chi Minh 2. Why did Truman and Eisenhower support French efforts against Ho Chi Minh? a. N/A: They did not support French efforts against Ho Chi Minh. b. Both presidents wanted to contain the spread of communism in Asia c. Truman supported the French efforts, Eisenhower did not. d. All of the above are true 3. How did the U.S. help South Vietnam resist communism? a. The U.S. did not helpb. The U.S. formed NATO c. The U.S. formed SEATOd. The U.S. formed ARVN 4. What was the significance of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution? a. It created the USS Maddox which patrolled the Gulf of Tonkin b. It allowed for Ho Chi Minh to exchange Twitter accounts with L.B. Johnson c. It allowed Johnson to order an airstrike against North Vietnam d. It gave Johnson the authority to send troops to S. Vietnam w/o congress’ approval

5 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Origins of the Vietnam War: Chapter 22, Section 1 Curriculum Standard: Analyze the causes, course and consequences of the Vietnam War.

6 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Describe the reasons that the United States helped the French fight the Vietnamese. Identify ways in which the United States opposed communism in Southeast Asia. Analyze how the United States increased its involvement in Vietnam. Objectives

7 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Terms and People Ho Chi Minh − a Vietnamese leader who demanded Vietnam’s independence from France Domino Theory − the idea that if a nation fell to communism, its closest neighbors would follow Dien Bien Phu − a French military base besieged by Vietminh troops until the French surrendered

8 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) − defensive alliance aimed at preventing communist aggression in Asia Vietcong − South Vietnamese guerrilla fighters supported by communists in North Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin Resolution − 1964 congressional resolution that authorized President Johnson to commit American troops to South Vietnam and fight a war against North Vietnam Terms and People (continued)

9 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Why did the United States become involved in Vietnam? Presidents Kennedy and Johnson shared a vision that the United States would emerge victorious from the Cold War. As part of this battle, the United States established a new line of defense in Vietnam.

10 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The United States wanted France as an ally in the Cold War. The United States also wanted to support any government that was fighting communism. The United States became involved in Vietnam for several reasons.

11 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. French colonial governments had ruled most of Indochina since the 1800s. The French exploited Indochina’s wealth by owning plantations, claiming mineral rights, and imposing high taxes.

12 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh worked to free Vietnam from colonial rule. Unable to get support from western nations, he embraced communism and received support from Soviet communists.

13 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In 1954, President Eisenhower introduced the domino theory, which said that if Vietnam became communist, its closest neighbors would follow. If communism spread throughout the region, Eisenhower feared, it could threaten Japan, the Philippines, and Australia.

14 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The Vietminh hammered at French forces and laid siege to the base for 55 days. After suffering more than 15,000 casualties, the French surrendered on May 7, Despite U.S. financial support, the French were defeated by Vietminh forces at Dien Bien Phu. In the peace accord that followed, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam gained independence from France.

15 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Vietnam was divided into two countries. Ho Chi Minh’s communist government ruled North Vietnam. An anticommunist government, supported by the United States, ruled South Vietnam.

16 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The United States supported South Vietnam in several ways. formed the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, which opposed communism gave economic and military aid sent Special Forces soldiers to “advise” South Vietnamese troops

17 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In 1961, President Kennedy sent Special Forces troops to help fight the Vietcong, the guerilla fighters of the National Liberation Front. The Diem government remained unpopular, however, and the Kennedy administration worked behind the scenes to remove Diem from power.

18 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In 1964, President Johnson faced his first crisis in Vietnam. North Vietnam attacked an American destroyer in the Gulf of Tonkin. Johnson ordered an airstrike against North Vietnam. He then asked Congress to authorize the use of force to defend U.S. troops. In response, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.

19 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave Johnson tremendous war powers. It allowed him to commit U.S. troops to South Vietnam. It enabled him to fight a war against North Vietnam without asking Congress for a declaration of war.

20 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Please complete page 178 in your workbook.

21 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Chapter 22, Section 2: U.S. Involvement Grows Curriculum Standard: Analyze the causes, course and consequences of the Vietnam War.

22 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Chapter 22, Section 2: U.S. Involvement Grows ( ) A – “Americanizing” the War (page 729) Q: What was the strategic aim of Operation Rolling Thunder? B – Red Heading: An Elusive and Determined Enemy (page 730) Q: Map 731: Why might a U.S. attack against Ho Chi Minh cause an international backlash against the United States? C – Patriotism, Heroism, and Sinking Morale (page 732) Q: Why did the morale of American troops decline as the war continued? D – Doubt Grows on the Home Front (page 734) Q: What were the opposing viewpoints of hawks and doves? E – Summary of Section Q: What were the causes and effects of America’s growing involvement in the Vietnam War? First, read your section in your group (A-E). Define any key terms in your section, take about 3 to 4 main points (detailed) summarizing your section and answer your focus question (15 mins). Then, your teams will change (1-5), each member gets a few minutes to explain their section of the text to their new members while the others take notes (20 mins). There will be an exit ticket containing questions from each section of the text. (5 mins)

23 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Focus Question Answers: A. The strategic aim of Operation Rolling Thunder was to persuade North Vietnam to stop reinforcing the Vietcong in South Vietnam. B. The trail ran largely through Laos and Cambodia, two countries that were not fighting in the war. C. Many U.S. troops questioned whether preserving the government in South Vietnam was crucial to American interests. D. Hawks believed that American involvement in the war was helping contain communism. Doves believed that the conflict was a localized civil war in which U.S. troops should not be involved. E. Lack of progress toward victory led to the commitment of more U.S. troops and resources; the commitment of more troops and resources without progress toward victory weakened the U.S. economy, divided Americans, and caused a decline in military morale.

24 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Individual Exit Ticket – worth 10 formative points: 1. What was the strategic aim of Operation Rolling Thunder? a. So, finally, Johnson could exchange Twitter accounts with Ho Chi Minh b. To persuade North Vietnam to stop reinforcing the Vietcong in S. Vietnam c. To persuade South Vietnam to stop reinforcing the Vietcong in N. Vietnam d. So Johnson could run for re-election in Which countries did the Ho Chi Minh trail go through? a. Laos and Cambodiab. Thailand and Laos c. Thailand and Cambodia d. Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos. 3. Why did the morale of American troops decline as the war continued? a. N/A: It did not decline b. Troops wanted to join N. Vietnam’s forces c. Troops questioned preserving the government in S. Vietnam was crucial to American interests d. The U.S. formed ARVN; which the troops didn’t like 4. What was the viewpoint of the “doves”? a. Doves questioned the war on moral and strategic grounds. b. Doves supported Johnson’s war policy. c. Doves believed in the containment of communism and the domino theory. d. Doves thought Vietnam was a crucial front in the Cold War.

25 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Chapter 22, Section 2: U.S. Involvement Grows Curriculum Standard: Analyze the causes, course and consequences of the Vietnam War.

26 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Identify the factors that caused President Johnson to increase American troop strength in Vietnam. Assess the nature of the war in Vietnam and the difficulties faced. Evaluate the effects of low morale on American troops and on the home front. Objectives

27 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Terms and People William Westmoreland − the American military commander in South Vietnam napalm − jellied gasoline that was dropped in canisters and exploded on impact, setting fire to large areas hawk − a supporter of Johnson’s war policies dove − an opponent of Johnson’s war policies

28 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. What were the causes and effects of America’s growing involvement in the Vietnam War? As the Vietnam War escalated, America’s leaders and soldiers found themselves in a quagmire with no victory in sight. Eventually the war weakened the American economy, divided the people, and eroded the nation’s morale.

29 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In 1965, the Vietcong attacked and killed American troops at Pleiku. In response, Johnson escalated air strikes against North Vietnam and increased the number of ground troops.

30 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The United States would use its superior war technology to win the conflict quickly. Johnson’s advisers, including William Westmoreland, the American commander in Vietnam, supported the increased military presence. This plan greatly increased American involvement in Vietnam.

31 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The North Vietnamese and Vietcong fighters proved a difficult enemy. Ho Chi Minh’s military strategy was to fight only when victory was certain. He exhorted his troops to be like a tiger fighting an elephant—the tiger keeps moving and takes bites out of the elephant.

32 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The Vietcong and North Vietnamese dug a complex series of tunnels, from which they mounted surprise attacks.

33 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Vietcong and North Vietnamese soldiers: Traveled quickly and quietly with little gear Attacked suddenly and then faded into the jungle Set booby traps around U.S. encampments Were difficult to tell apart from friendly Vietnamese

34 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The United States used a variety of strategies against the Vietcong. Six million tons of bombs were dropped on enemy positions. The herbicide Agent Orange was sprayed to defoliate the countryside. Napalm covered large areas in flames. Soldiers conducted search- and-destroy missions. Helicopters were used to ferry commandoes to and from remote locations for quick strikes.

35 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.

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39 The war grew increasingly difficult and frustrating. Many American soldiers had been drafted and did not see how the war helped U.S. interests. The lack of progress toward victory in Vietnam increased doubt about the war. The war strained America’s economy.

40 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. By 1968, there were more than half a million American troops in Vietnam, and over 30,000 had died.

41 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Doves questioned the war. They included liberal politicians and students who saw the conflict as a localized civil war. Hawks supported Johnson’s war policies. They were mostly conservatives who believed the war was crucial to an American Cold War victory.

42 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Please complete page 180 in the workbook!

43 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Summative Essay: Define ‘Hero’ Write an essay answering, “How do you define a hero?”. This is not a research paper, but rather your opinion on this question. Use specific examples from your own experiences that support your ideas. This is worth 30 summative points, due today. It can be a rough draft but it must be 4 paragraphs long (5 sentences each paragraph) and no longer than 1,000 words. There is a contest by the National WWII Museum for the best essay: First Place - $1,000 Second Place - $750 Third Place - $500 Finished essays for contest entry are due March 31 st, 2015! If you have completed this, please work on Page 182 in your workbook.

44 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Opposition to the Vietnam War

45 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Describe the divisions within American society over the Vietnam War. Analyze the Tet Offensive and the American reaction to it. Summarize the factors that influenced the outcome of the 1968 presidential election. Objectives

46 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Terms and People draftee − a young man who was drafted into military service Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) − organization founded to fight racism but which later campaigned against the Vietnam War “credibility gap” − the American public’s growing distrust of statements made by the government during the Vietnam War

47 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Tet Offensive − a coordinated assault, in January 1968, by the Vietcong and North Vietnamese on South Vietnamese cities and bases Eugene McCarthy − the antiwar candidate for the Democratic Party presidential nomination in 1968 Robert Kennedy − New York’s Democratic senator and a candidate for the Democratic Party presidential nomination in 1968 Terms and People (continued)

48 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. How did the American war effort in Vietnam lead to rising protests and social divisions back home? President Johnson sent more troops to Vietnam to win the war. But as casualty lists got longer and victory seemed further away, more people questioned the war. The Vietnam War divided Americans more deeply than any conflict since the Civil War.

49 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. By 1965 most of the troops sent to Vietnam were no longer volunteers, they were draftees. Many people opposed the policies of the draft. More than 1.5 million young men were drafted during the Vietnam War. Many argued that the draft unfairly gave deferments to students. Most of the draftees came from a poor or working-class background.

50 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. African Americans were less likely than whites to become commissioned officers. They were more likely to serve, and die, in combat positions. The number of African Americans fighting in Vietnam was disproportionately high.

51 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Inequalities in the draft led to widespread resistance against the war. In 1969, the draft was restructured to introduce a lottery system.

52 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Students’ opposition to the war grew. Colleges and universities became centers of antiwar activism. Most student protesters were from the middle class; working-class students were less likely to protest against the war. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) campaigned to end the war in Vietnam.

53 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. TV news showed the war’s horrors. The difference between government reports and news stories created a credibility gap. Beyond college campuses, more and more Americans also opposed the war.

54 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. However, in early 1968 the Vietcong and North Vietnamese launched the Tet Offensive. He claimed the Vietcong had weakened and could no longer mount a major attack. In November 1967, General Westmoreland addressed the nation’s concerns about the war.

55 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The Tet Offensive attacked major cities and bases in South Vietnam, including the U.S. Embassy in Saigon. The fighting was fierce, but American and South Vietnamese forces eventually drove back the offensive.

56 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The new Secretary of Defense, Clark Clifford, recommended that President Johnson pursue peace, rather than victory, in Vietnam. After the Tet Offensive, U.S. military leaders became less certain that the war could end quickly.

57 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Democratic Senator Eugene McCarthy, who opposed the war, made a strong showing in the New Hampshire primary. Robert Kennedy, a Democratic Senator from New York, also announced his candidacy. In 1968, Johnson shocked the nation by announcing that he would not run for another term as President.

58 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In April, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis. Senator Robert Kennedy was assassinated in June, just after he’d won the California Democratic primary. Police used rough tactics to break up student protests outside the Democratic Convention in Chicago. The optimism of the early 1968 campaigns ended as violence stunned the nation.

59 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Eventually the Democrats chose Hubert Humphrey, Johnson’s Vice President, as their presidential candidate. Republicans held a more peaceful convention, choosing Richard M. Nixon as their presidential candidate.

60 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Nixon won the 1968 election. He called for peace with honor in Vietnam. He appealed to the “silent majority”—people who were not protesting. He benefited because Democrats were split between Humphrey and George Wallace, a third-party candidate from the South.

61 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. End and Impact of the Vietnam War

62 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Assess Nixon’s new approach to the war, and explain why protests continued. Explain what led to the Paris Peace Accords and why South Vietnam eventually fell to the communists. Evaluate the impact of the Vietnam War on the United States. Objectives

63 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Terms and People Vietnamization − Nixon’s plan for American forces to withdraw and South Vietnamese forces to assume more combat duties Kent State University − site of a confrontation between students and National Guardsmen during which four students were killed My Lai − a village in South Vietnam where American soldiers killed unarmed civilians

64 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Pentagon Papers − classified government history of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, published by The New York Times in 1971 Paris Peace Accords − a 1973 agreement between the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the Vietcong for a cease-fire and American troop withdrawal from South Vietnam War Powers Act − passed in 1973, this act restricted the President’s war-making powers Terms and People (continued)

65 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. How did the Vietnam War end, and what were its lasting effects? Nixon withdrew American troops from South Vietnam, but the impact of the war endured. Americans reexamined the power of the presidency, the struggle against communism, and America’s overall role in the world.

66 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. President Nixon inherited an unpopular war and increasing troubles on the home front.

67 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The Vietnamization of the war, which would transfer front-line fighting to the South Vietnamese. “Peace with Honor”: American withdrawal from Vietnam on honorable terms.

68 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Ordered the bombing of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Cambodia to reduce the flow of supplies to the Vietcong. Extended the war with a ground attack by U.S. soldiers on North Vietnamese bases in Cambodia in Behind the scenes, President Nixon

69 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. At Kent State University in Ohio, four students were shot by National Guardsmen in May of A similar confrontation at Jackson State University in Mississippi left two students dead. Counterprotests were held by those supporting Nixon and the war efforts. Protests at Home

70 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.

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73 In 1971, Americans were stunned to learn about the My Lai massacre. Four years earlier, U.S. soldiers searching for Vietcong in the village of My Lai had killed hundreds of unarmed civilians.

74 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.

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76 The publication of the Pentagon Papers further shocked the nation. The report revealed that American leaders had lied to Congress and failed to inform the public fully about the American involvement in Vietnam. Nixon tried to stop publication of the Pentagon Papers, but The New York Times published the report in 1971.

77 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the Vietcong would stop fighting. American troops would withdraw from South Vietnam. North Vietnamese troops would remain in South Vietnam. South Vietnam’s noncommunist government would remain in power. In January 1973, the war finally ended with the signing of the Paris Peace Accords.

78 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. For the United States, the war was over, but fighting continued in Vietnam despite the peace agreement. In the spring of 1975, North Vietnam invaded Saigon and won the war.

79 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. More than 58,000 Americans died in Vietnam. It would be years before Vietnam veterans were acknowledged for their sacrifices. The war undermined Americans’ trust in their leaders. Americans became reluctant to intervene in other nations’ affairs. Congress passed the the War Powers Act in 1973, restricting the President’s ability to send the nation to war. The Vietnam War had a lasting effect on American life.

80 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Nixon's Foreign Policy

81 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Explain the thinking behind Richard Nixon’s foreign policy. Define Nixon’s foreign policy toward China and the Soviet Union. Objectives

82 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Terms and People Henry Kissinger − President Nixon’s leading adviser on national security and international affairs realpolitik − the belief that political goals should be defined by concrete national interests instead of abstract ideologies Zhou Enlai − Premier of China when Nixon made a state visit to China in 1972

83 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) − 1972 treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union that froze the deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles and placed limits on antiballistic missiles détente − flexible diplomacy adopted by Richard Nixon to ease tensions between the United States, the Soviet Union, and the People’s Republic of China Terms and People (continued)

84 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. How did Richard Nixon change Cold War diplomacy during his presidency? After the Vietnam War, President Nixon developed a new approach to the Cold War. His bold program redefined America’s relations with the Soviet Union and China.

85 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. President Nixon redefined U.S. foreign policy. He did not divide the world into “us” (democratic countries) and “them” (communist countries). He practiced realpolitik — foreign policy based on concrete national interests rather than ideology. He concluded that there was no united worldwide communist movement.

86 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Henry Kissinger was President’s Nixon’s leading adviser on national security and international affairs. Together they altered America’s Cold War policy, improving the country’s relations with China and the Soviet Union.

87 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Diplomatic relations with China would bring economic opportunities to the United States. An improved relationship with China would weaken China’s ties to the Soviet Union. A political realist, Nixon wanted to establish diplomatic relations with China. The United States stood to gain much by recognizing China.

88 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. China invited an American ping-pong team to play in a tournament. Kissinger used that opportunity to work behind the scenes, talking with Chinese leaders and ironing out sensitive issues. Chinese and American players training together

89 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In February 1972, President Nixon visited China and met with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai.

90 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev invited President Nixon to visit Moscow. Trade thrived between the United States and China. American tourists began to visit China. Nixon’s visit to China resulted in several benefits for the United States.

91 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In May 1972, Nixon met with Brezhnev in Moscow. They signed SALT 1, the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, a major step towards ending the nuclear arms race. The two leaders agreed to reduce pollution and undertake a joint U.S.–Soviet space mission.

92 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Nixon’s policy of détente, the easing of Cold War tensions, replaced the old policy based on suspicions and distrust. His foreign-policy breakthroughs moved the world closer to the end of the Cold War.

93 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Section 1: Origins of the Vietnam War American involvement in Vietnam began with President Truman’s support of the French colonial governments in Southeast Asia. Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy continued that support. Chapter Summary Section 2: U.S. Involvement Grows After Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, President Johnson sent more troops to South Vietnam. This escalation began to weaken the economy and divide the American people.

94 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Section 3: The War Divides America Chapter Summary (continued) Section 4: The War’s End and Impact More and more troops were sent to Vietnam, as casualties increased and victory remained elusive. America divided into hawks, who supported Johnson’s policies, and doves, who opposed the Vietnam War. Presidential candidate Nixon promised peace with honor. As President, Nixon secretly ordered air strikes on Cambodia and eventually withdrew U.S. troops from Vietnam. But the war’s impact on America endured.

95 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Section 5: Nixon and the Cold War Chapter Summary (continued) Nixon developed a new approach to the Cold War. He established diplomatic relations with China and signed the first U.S–Soviet Union agreement that limited the nuclear arms race.


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