Pearl Harbor- the Japanese attacked pearl harbor in Hawaii which brought the United States into World War 2. Fighting Two Fronts- fighting two fronts worried president Roosevelt. However Churchill knew that victory in modern war depended on the industrial power. Churchill was right. The industrial output of the United States astonishing -American workers were twice as productive as German workers and five times more productive than Japanese workers. American production turned the tide in favor of the Allies
The committee is formed- Roosevelt believed that government and business had to work together to prepare for war. He created the National Defense Advisory: a committee to help mobilize the economy and asked several business leaders to serve on the committee. Cost-Plus Contracts- to quickly get companies to switch to war production they started signing cost-plus contracts. Cost-Plus Contracts: government agreed to pay a company what ever is would cost to make a product plus a guaranteed percentage of costs as profit.
To convince more companies to convert to war production, congress gave a new authority to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC). That government agency set up during the depression, could make loans to companies wanting to convert their factories o war production.
American Industry Gets the Job Done The great depression was ending, demand was up, and sales were rising. -by 1941 much had already been done to prepare the economy for war, but only partially -many companies were producing military equipment, most preferred commercial goods however -the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor changed everything Tanks Replace Cars The automobile industry was uniquely suited to the mass production of military equipment -mass production of jeeps, trucks, and tanks
Mass production was critical in modern warfare because the country that could move troops and supplies most quickly usually won the battle. -automobile industry also built artillery, rifles, mines, helmets, pontoon bridges, and dozens of other pieces of military equipment -Henry Ford created an assembly line for the enormous B-24 bomber known as the “liberator’’ Interesting fact! Over all the auto industry produced nearly 1/3 of all military equipment Building the Liberty Ships -Henry Kaiser's shipyards more than matched Ford’s remarkable achievement -World War two started and Kaiser switched from construction to shipbuilding
-German submarines were sinking American cargo ships at a terrifying rate/ United States had to find a way to build cargo ships as quickly as possible Kaiser believed that sped was more important than quality, and that cost was less important than results -To be more efficient and get the job done quickly he applied construction techniques to shipbuilding -Instead of building an entire ship from keel up, they were prefabricated and brought to the shipyards Best known for our Liberty Ships- basic cargo ship Interesting facts! It took 244 days to build the first liberty ship, which dropped to 41 days per ship Kaiser built 30% of all American ships
The War Production Board -many converted businesses owners soon became frustrated with the mobilization process -Government agencies argued constantly about who had priority -After Pearl Harbor President Roosevelt tried to improve the system by creating the War Production Board (WPB)- authority to set priorities and production goals and to control the distribution of raw materials and supplies. -Immediately the WPB clashed with the military -Military agencies continued to sign contracts with out consulting with the WPB 1943 Roosevelt established the Office of War Mobilization (OWM)- to settle arguments among the different agencies
Building an Army -Within days of Germany’s attack on Poland in 1939, President Roosevelt expanded the army to 227,000 soldiers -Before the spring of 1940, college students, unions, isolationists, and most members of congress had opposed a peacetime draft -two members of congress introduced the selective service and training act, a plan for the first peacetime draft in American History September of 1940, congress approved the first draft in American history Draft- to select a person t random for mandatory military service -More than 60,000 men enlisted in the military, the month after Pearl Harbor was attacked -Many recruits had to live in tents rather than barracks
-The army also experienced equipment shortages, troops carried sticks that represented guns, threw stones simulating grenades, and practiced maneuvers with trucks labeled “Tank” -New recruits were initially sent to a reception center where they were given physical examinations and injections against small pox and typhoid -The draftees were then issued uniforms, boots, an what ever equipment as available -The clothing bore the label “G.I” meaning “Government Issue” which is why American soldiers were called GI’s -After taking aptitude test, recruits went to basic training for 8 weeks, they learned how to handle weapons, load backpacks, and read maps, pitch tents and dig trenches
A Segregated Army At the start of the war, the U.S military was segregated -White recruits did not train along side African Americans -African Americans had separate barracks, latrines, mess halls, and recreational facilities -Once trained African Americans were organized into their own units. But white officers generally construction and supply units African Americans did not go into combat -African American soldiers described them as being disenfranchised, spat upon, and shut out and asked, “what more could Hitler do to us?”
Pushing for Double “V” -in 1941 the National Urban League asked it members to encourage African Americans to join the war effort. They also asked them to make plans for building a better society in the U.S. after the war. -The double “V” campaign urged African Americans to support the war, and achieve a double victory over both racism in the united states and in Europe with Hitler's racism. African Americans in Combat -eventually President Roosevelt ordered army, airforce, navy, and marines to recruit African Americans and to put them into combat -The highest ranking African American officer to rank of brigadier general was Colonel Benjamin O. Davis, Sr.
-Tuskee Airmen were the first African American unit, also known as the 99 th pursuit squadron -They won the battle of Anzio in Italy -Commander of the squadron was Colonel Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. General Davis’s son -African Americans also performed we in the army -The all African American 761 st tank battalion was summoned for its service during the Battle of the Bulge -Although the military did not end all segregation during the war, it did integrate military based in 1943 and steadily expanded the role of African American with in the armed forces -These success packed the way for president Truman's decision to fully integrate the military in 1948
Other Minorities in Combat -Japanese Americans were not allowed to serve in the military at first -However second generation Japanese American served in the 100 th infantry battalion and the 442 nd regiment combat -Most minorities were allowed only in noncombat positions, such as kitchen workers -Native Americans who were regarded as fierce warriors were an exception -One third of healthy native Americans served during the war
Woman Joined the Armed Forces -The army enlisted women for the first time, although they were barred from combat -Many jobs in the army were administrative and clerical -Assigning woman to these jobs made more than available for combat Congress first allowed women in the military in may 1942 Congress also established the Woman’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC)
The army Replaced the (WAAC) with the Woman’s Army Corps (WAC) -Woman also made plane delivery for the army known as Woman Air force Service Pilots -the coast guard, the navy, and marines quickly followed the army and set up their own women's units -Another 68,000 woman served as nurses in the army and navy
1) A committee to help mobilize the economy and asked several business leaders to serve on the committee. A: National Defense Advisory B: Cost-Plus Contracts C: Reconstruction Finance Corporation
2) ______ _______was critical in modern warfare because the country that could move troops and supplies most quickly usually won the battle. A: African Americans B: Mass Production C: War Production
3) The __________ industry was uniquely suited to the mass production of military equipment A: Auto Mobile B: Mechanics C: Medical
4) __________________ had the authority to set priorities and production goals and to control the distribution of raw materials and supplies. A: The double “V” campaign B: Office of War Mobilization (OWM) C: War Production Board (WPB)
5) 1943 Roosevelt established the ______________________to settle arguments among the different agencies A: Office of War Mobilization (OWM) B: War Production Board (WPB) C: The double “V” campaign
6) September of 1940, congress approved the first ____ in American history ______- to select a person at random for mandatory military service A: Disenfranchised B: Cost-plus C: Draft
True or False 7)African Americans went into combat
8) Congress first allowed women in the military in may of A: 1942 B: 1939 C: 1943
9) Congress also established the __________________ A: War Production Board (WPB) B: Woman’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) C: The double “V” campaign
True or False 10) At the start of the war, the U.S military was segregated
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