Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Dr. C. Rama Krishna Dept. of CSE NITTTR, Chandigarh.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Dr. C. Rama Krishna Dept. of CSE NITTTR, Chandigarh."— Presentation transcript:

1 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Dr. C. Rama Krishna Dept. of CSE NITTTR, Chandigarh rkc at nitttrchd.ac.in

2 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Cellular Technologies 2G Systems 2.5G Systems 3G Systems 4G Systems NextG Systems Short range Technologies  Home RF  Bluetooth  ZigBee Wireless LAN Technology 2.4/5 GHz Wireless LAN Ad-hoc / Infrastructure Mode Long Range Technologies  Internet Which Technology ?

3 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Outline History and Introduction Brief Introduction to Physical Layer Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer Routing and Transport Layer Issues Quality-of-Service Issues Security Issues Additional Resources

4 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali History and Introduction

5 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali History Packet Radio NETwork (PRNET) by DARPA - late 1960s Military Communications Disaster Management Survivable Packet Radio Networks (SURAN) – 1980s MANET group formed under Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – 1990s IEEE released PHY and MAC standard – 1995 (later updated versions evolved)

6 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali What is an Ad hoc Network ? Network of wireless nodes (may be static/mobile) – No infrastructure (e.g. base stations, fixed links, routers, centralized servers) – Data can be relayed by intermediate nodes – Routing infrastructure created dynamically A B C D radio range of node A traffic from A D is relayed by nodes B and C

7 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Does not depend on pre-existing infrastructure Ease of deployment Speed of deployment Anytime-Anywhere-Any device network paradigm Why an Ad hoc Network?

8 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Mobile Ad hoc Network Example Communication between nodes may be in single/multi-hop Each of the nodes acts as a host as well as a router

9 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Typical Applications Military environments soldiers, tanks, planes Emergency operations search-and-rescue Personal area networking cell phone, laptop, etc. Civilian environments meeting rooms, sports stadiums, hospitals Education virtual classrooms, conferences Sensor networks homes, environmental applications

10 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Ad hoc Network Architecture physical Data link network transport application physical Data link network transport application physical Data link network transport application wireless link SourceDestinationIntermediate node wireless link

11 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Some Challenges Limited wireless transmission range Broadcast nature of wireless medium hidden terminal and exposed terminal problems – MAC problem Mobility-induced route changes – routing problem Packet losses due to: transmission errors and node mobility – transport problem Battery constraints – energy efficiency problem Ease of snooping - security problem

12 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Physical Layer

13 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali IEEE WLAN standards Sl.No StandardSpecification Physical Layer & MAC Layer aPhysical Layer bPhysical Layer QoS enhancement in MAC gPhysical Layer i Security enhancement in MAC e n 600 Mbps with MIMO Very High Throughput ac ad p WAVE Very High Throughput

14 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Supports networking in two modes: Infrastructure based WLAN using access points (APs) Infrastructure-less ad hoc networks – widely used in simulation studies and testbeds of MANET IEEE standard

15 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Basic service area (BSA) Access Point (AP) Basic Service Set (BSS) Wire line PC Laptop IEEE based infrastructure WLAN

16 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) Laptop IEEE based infrastructure-less Adhoc Network

17 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali IEEE Physical Layer Specification Standard Parameter a802.11b Bandwidth83.5MHz300MHz83.5MHz Frequency band GHz GHz and – GHz GHz Channels3123 Data Rate ( in Mbps) 1, 26, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48 and 54 1, 2, 5.5, and 11 Transmission Scheme FHSS, DSSS with QPSK OFDM (with PSK and QAM ) DSSS(with QPSK & CCK modulation)

18 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Present physical Layer IEEE , 11a, b and g Supports 1/ 2 /11/ 22/ 54 Mbps data rate in static indoor environment DSSS is not suitable for data rate more than 10Mbps OFDM based Physical layer design for high data rate transmission up to 54 Mbps [ a & g] Physical Layer for high speed MANET

19 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Medium Access Control (MAC)

20 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Need for a MAC Protocol Wireless channel is a shared medium and bandwidth is a scarce resource. Need access control mechanism to avoid collision(s) To maximize probability of successful transmissions by resolving contention among users To avoid problems due to hidden and exposed nodes To maintain fairness amongst all users

21 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Classification of Wireless MAC Protocols Wireless MAC protocols DistributedCentralized Random Access Hybrid Access Guaranteed Access Random Access Guaranteed Access and Hybrid Access protocols require infrastructure such as Base Station or Access Point – Not suitable for MANETs Random Access protocols can be operated in either architecture – suitable for MANETS

22 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Distributed Random Access Protocols

23 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Pure ALOHA MAC Protocol Frames are transmitted as they are generated (No discipline!).

24 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali The transmission x is successful: if and only if: There are no transmission attempts that begins (=arrives) during the time interval (t-1, t+1] Therefore: Prob. [ a transmission attempt is successful ] = Prob. [ 0 arrivals in the period (t-1,t+1] ] = Prob. [ 0 arrivals in 2 time units ] = e −2G Modeling of Pure ALOHA MAC Protocol

25 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Throughput = Offered Load (G) × Prob. [ a transmission attempt is successful ] = G × e −2G Throughput of Pure ALOHA MAC Protocol

26 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali The throughput for pure ALOHA is S = G × e −2G The maximum throughput S max = 0.184, when G = 0.5

27 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Slotted ALOHA MAC Protocol Frames are transmitted only at slot boundaries (some discipline!).

28 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali The throughput for slotted ALOHA is S = G × e −G The maximum throughput S max = 0.368, when G = 1

29 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Throughput for pure and slotted ALOHA

30 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) MAC Protocol Max. throughput : pure ALOHA % and slotted ALOHA % Listen to the channel before transmitting a packet (better disciplined!) CSMA improves throughput compared to ALOHA protocols

31 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Variants of CSMA CSMA Nonpersistent CSMA Persistent CSMA Unslotted Nonpersistent CSMA Unslotted persistent CSMA Slotted Nonpersistent CSMA Slotted persistent CSMA 1-persistent CSMA p-persistent CSMA

32 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali CSMA/CD Adds collision detection capability to CSMA; greatly reduces time wasted due to collisions Standardized as IEEE 802.3, most widespread LAN Developed by Robert Metcalfe during early 1970s..... led to founding of “3COM” company. [later Metcalfe sold his company for $400M) The name 3COM comes from the company's focus on "COMputers, COMmunication and COMmpatibility"

33 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Why can’t we use CSMA or CSMA/CD in a Wireless LAN or Adhoc Network?

34 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali If the channel is idle, transmit If the channel is busy, wait for a random time Waiting time is calculated using Binary Exponential Backoff (BEB) algorithm Limitations of carrier Sensing - hidden terminals - exposed terminals Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)

35 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Hidden Terminal Problem ! Node A can hear both B and C; but B and C cannot hear each other When B transmits to A, C cannot detect this transmission using the carrier sense mechanism If C also transmits to A, collision will occur at node A Increases data packet collisions and hence reduces throughput Possible solution: RTS (request-to-Send)/ CTS (Clear-to-Send) handshake C B A Note: colored circles represent the Tx range of each node

36 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Exposed Terminal Problem D B C A ? When A transmits to B, C detects this transmission using carrier sense mechanism C refrains from transmitting to D, hence C is exposed to A’s transmission Reduces bandwidth utilization and hence reduces throughput Possible solution: Directional Antennas, separate channels for control and data

37 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Uses Request-To-Send (RTS) and Clear-To-Send (CTS) handshake to reduce the effects of hidden terminals Data transfer duration is included in RTS and CTS, which helps other nodes to be silent for this duration If a RTS/CTS packet collides, nodes wait for a random time which is calculated using BEB algorithm Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) Drawback: Cannot avoid RTS/CTS control packet collisions

38 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali ABC D E DATA A B C E D RTS CTS RTS-CTS Handshake in Action A is the source which is in the range of B, D and C B is the destination which is in the range of A, D and E radio range of A radio range of B

39 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali ABC D E DATA RTS CTS A is the source which is in the range of B, D and C B is the destination which is in the range of A, D and E B sends ACK after receiving one data packet Improves link reliability using ACK MACA for Wireless LANs (MACAW) ACK A B C E D

40 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Has provision for two modes - Point Coordination Function (PCF) - Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) Point Coordination Function - Provides contention-free access - Requires Access Point (AP) for coordination - Not suitable for a MANET IEEE MAC Protocol

41 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Two schemes: Basic access scheme (CSMA/CA) CSMA/CA with RTS (Request-to-Send)/CTS (Clear-to- Send) handshake (optional) Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)

42 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali CSMA/CA with RTS/CTS CFABED RTS RTS = Request-to-Send

43 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali CSMA/CA with RTS/CTS (contd.) CFABED RTS RTS = Request-to-Send NAV = 20 NAV (Net Allocation Vector) = indicates remaining duration to keep silent

44 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali CSMA/CA with RTS/CTS (contd.) CFABED CTS CTS = Clear-to-Send

45 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali CSMA/CA with RTS/CTS (contd.) CFABED CTS CTS = Clear-to-Send NAV = 15 NAV (Net Allocation Vector) = indicates remaining duration to keep silent

46 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali CSMA/CA with RTS/CTS (contd.) CFABED DATA DATA packet follows CTS. Successful data reception acknowledged using ACK.

47 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali CSMA/CA with RTS/CTS (contd.) CFABED ACK ACK = Acknowledgement packet

48 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali CSMA/CA with RTS/CTS (contd.) CFABED ACK Reserved area for transmission between node C and D

49 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Limitations of DCF MAC Performance of Basic Access Method (CSMA/CA) degrades due to hidden and exposed node problems CSMA/CA with RTS/CTS – consumes additional bandwidth for control packets transmission may introduce significant delay in data packet transmission if RTS/CTS control packets experience frequent collisions and retransmissions (possible in case of high node concentration)

50 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Example: RTS/CTS packet collisions AB RTS CTS C RTS D E Node C (which is hidden from node A) misses the CTS packet from node B due to a collision with an RTS packet from D

51 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Multi-Channel MAC Protocols Divides bandwidth into multiple channels Selects any one of the idle channels Advantages: Improves throughput performance in the network by distributing traffic over time as well as over bandwidth Disadvantages: Increases hardware complexity

52 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Example: Single-channel/Multiple-Channel MAC Protocol P EF D C P AB Bandwidth (a) Single Channel time P AB P CD P EF P AB P CD P EF Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 time Bandwidth (b) Multiple Channels (3 channels) P CD A B E F Node A, C and E are in radio range

53 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Use of Directional Antennas Wireless nodes traditionally use omni-directional antennas e.g., IEEE MAC Disadvantage: Increases exposed node problem RTS CTS A B CD G E H RTS CTS F X Reserved Area Example: IEEE MAC Node B, E, G & H (colored red) are exposed nodes, hence cannot communicate

54 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Example: Directional Antennas Node B only is exposed for communication between C & D Communication between E & X is possible Use of directional antennas reduces exposed terminals C D E X B A G H F

55 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Directional Antennas: Advantages & Disadvantages Reduces interference to neighboring nodes - helps in frequency reuse - increases packet success probability (or reduces number of collisions) Higher gain due to their directivity - allows transmitters to operate at a smaller transmission power and still maintain adequate signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) - reduces average power consumption in the nodes Requires a mechanism to determine direction for transmission and reception Cost of beam forming antennas is a concern

56 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Energy Conservation Many wireless nodes are powered by batteries, hence needs MAC protocols which conserve energy. Two approaches to reduce energy consumption - power save: Turn off wireless interface when not required - power control: Reduce transmit power Need for power-aware MAC protocols

57 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Power Control AB CD Radio range Fig.1 When node C transmits to D at a higher power level, B cannot receive A’s transmission due to interference from C (Fig. 1) AB CD Fig. 2 If node C reduces Tx power, it still communicates with D (Fig. 2) - Reduces energy consumption at node C - Allows B to receive A’s transmission (spatial reuse) Reduces interference and increases spatial reuse Energy Saving Radio range

58 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Routing Protocols

59 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Importance of Routing in MANET Host mobility link failure due to mobility of nodes Rate of link failure may be high when nodes move fast Some desirable features of routing protocols Minimum route discovery and maintenance time Minimum routing overhead Shortest route despite mobility

60 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Classification of Unicast Routing Protocols STAR: Source Tree Adoptive Routing DSDV: Destination Sequence Distance Vector WRP: Wireless Routing Protocol OLSR: Optimized Link State Routing, CSGR: Cluster Switch Gateway Routing (CSGR) FSR : Fisheye State Routing DSR: Dynamic Source Routing, ABR: Associativity Based Routing TORA: Temporally Ordered Routing, SSR : Signal Stability-based Routing AODV: Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing LAR: Location Aided Routing, LANMAR: Landmark Ad hoc Routing Protocol ZRP: Zone Routing Protocol, PR: Preemptive Routing STAR ProactiveReactiveHybrid DSDV WRPCSGR DSR AODVZRP ABR LANMARTORALARSSR OLSR FSR PR Unicast Routing Protocols

61 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Proactive Routing Protocols

62 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Characteristics of Proactive Routing Protocols Distributed, shortest-path protocols Maintain routes between every host pair at all times Based on Periodic updates of routing table High routing overhead and consumes more bandwidth Example: Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV)

63 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Reactive Routing Protocols

64 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Characteristics of Reactive Routing Protocols Reactive protocols Determine route if and when needed Less control packet overhead Source initiates route discovery process More route discovery delay Example: Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV)

65 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Proactive and Reactive Protocol Trade-Off Latency of route discovery Proactive protocols may have lower latency since routes are maintained at all times Reactive protocols may have higher latency because a route from X to Y will be found only when X attempts to send a packet to Y Overhead of route discovery and maintenance Reactive protocols may have lower overhead since routes are determined only if needed Proactive protocols may result in higher overhead due to continuous route updating Which approach achieves a better trade-off depends on the type of traffic and mobility patterns

66 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

67 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Reliable ordered delivery Implements congestion control Reliability achieved by means of retransmissions End-to-end semantics Acknowledgements (ACKs) sent to TCP sender confirm delivery of data received by TCP receiver

68 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali TCP in MANET Several factors affect TCP performance in a MANET: Wireless transmission errors –may cause fast retransmit, which results in retransmission of a lost packet reduction in Congestion Window (cwnd) –reducing congestion window in response to transmission errors is unnecessary Route failures due to mobility leads to packet losses

69 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Impact of Transmission Errors on TCP TCP cannot distinguish between packet losses due to congestion and mobility induced transmission errors Unnecessarily reduces congestion window size Throughput suffers

70 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali QoS Issues

71 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Guarantee by the network to satisfy a set of pre-determined service performance constraints for the user: - end-to-end delay - available bandwidth - probability of packet loss - delay and jitter (variation in delay) Enough network resources must be available during service invocation to honor the guarantee Power consumption and service coverage area- other QoS attributes specific to MANET QoS support in MANETs encompasses issues at physical layer, MAC layer, network, transport and application layers Quality-of-Service (QOS)

72 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali QoS support in MANETs: Issues and Difficulties Unpredictable link properties Node mobility Limited battery life Hidden and exposed node problem Route maintenance Security

73 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Security Issues

74 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Security Issues in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Wireless medium is easy to snoop Due to ad hoc connectivity and mobility, it is hard to guarantee access to any particular node Easier for trouble-makers to insert themselves into a mobile ad hoc network (as compared to a wired network)

75 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Open Issues in Mobile Ad Hoc Networking

76 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Open Problems Physical layer modeling to support broadband services Efficient MAC protocols to support mobility, QoS and security Efficient routing protocols with scalability, QoS and security QoS issues at other layers Security issues at other layers Interoperation with Internet

77 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali References [1] C.E. Perkins, Ad Hoc Networking, Addison-Wesley, 2002 [2] J. Broch et al., “A Performance Comparison of Multi-hop Wireless Ad hoc Network Routing Protocols,” Proceedings of the 4 th International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM MOBICOM’98), pp , October [3] E. Royer and C.K. Toh, “A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad hoc Mobile Wireless Networks,” IEEE Personal Communications Magazine, Vol. 6, Issue 2, pp , [4] C.E. Perkins, E.M. Royer, and Samir Das, “Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing,” manet-aodv-13.txt, (work in progress), February [5] L. Bajaj et al., “GloMoSim: A Scalable Network Simulation Environment,” CSD Technical Report, #990027, UCLA, 1997.

78 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali References (contd.) [6] IEEE Standards Department, Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and PHYsical layer (PHY) specifications, IEEE standard , [7] B.P. Crow et al., “IEEE Wireless Local Area Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 35, Issue 9, pp , September [8] C-K. Toh, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Protocols and Systems, Prentice-Hall, [9] Yiyan Wu and WilliumY. Zou, “Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Trans.Consumer electronics, vol.41, no.3, pp , Aug [10] Ramjee Prasad and Shinsuke Hara, “DS-CDMA,MC-CDMA and MT-CDMA for Mobile Multimedia Communications” in Proc. IEEE VTC’96, pp , April 1996.

79 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali References (contd.) [11] Hyumb Yang, Kiseon Kim, ”Multimedia Ad hoc wireless LANs with Distributed Channel Allocation based on OFDM-CDMA,” in Proc. ICT’03,p.p ,Feb [12] M.Conti et.al, “ Cross layering in mobile ad hoc network design,” Computer, IEEE computer society, pp , February [13] F.H.P.Fitzek,Diego Angelini, G Mazzini, M.Z.U. Di Ferrara, “Design and Performance of an Enhanced IEEE MAC Protocol for Multi- hop Coverage Extension,” IEEE Wireless communication, PP , Dec [14] Zhou Wenam, Li zheen, Song Junde, and Wang Daoyi, “Applying OFDM in the Next Generation Mobile Communications,” in Proc. IEEE Canadian Conf. Electrical & Computer Engineering 2002, pp

80 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali References (contd.) [15] R.V.Nee and Ramjee Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications, Artech House, Boston,London,2000. [16] Y. B. Ko, V. Shankarkumar, and N. H. Vaidya, “Medium Access Control Protocols using Directional Antennas in Ad hoc Networks,” In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM’2000, Mar [17] G.Gaertner, V.Cahill, “Understanding Link Quality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks,” IEEE Internet computing, pp , Jan.-Feb [18] X.Shugong,T.Saadawi,“Does the IEEE MAC protocol work well in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks?” IEEE Comm. magazine, pp ,June 2001.

81 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali References (contd.) [19] T. Goff, N. B. Abu-Ghazaleh, D. S. Phatak, and R. Kahvecioglu, “ Preemptive routing in ad hoc networks,” Proc. of ACM MOBICOM’2001, [20] M.Tubaishat, S.Madria, ”Sensor networks: an overview,” IEEE potentials, pp.20-23,April-May [21] Prasant Mohapatra, J.Li, Chao Gui,” QoS in Mobile Ad hoc Networks,” IEEE Wireless Communication, pp.44-52,June [22] N,Choi,Y.Seok,Y.Choi, “Multi-channel MAC for Mobile Ad hoc Networks,” Proc.VTC’03, pp , Oct [23] I.Bradaric and A.P.Petropulu, “Analysis of physical layer performance of IEEE a in an Ad hoc Network Environment,” in Proc. MILICOM’03, vol.2, pp , Oct. 2003

82 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali References (contd.) [24] C. Rama Krishna, S. Chakrabarti, and D. Datta, “A Modified Backoff Algorithm for IEEE DCF-based MAC Protocol in a Mobile Ad hoc Network,” Proc. of the International Conference IEEE TENCON 2004, Chiang Mai, Thailand, November [25] Nah-Oak, et. al, “Enhancement of IEEE Distributed Coordination Function with Exponential Increase and Exponential Decrease Backoff Algorithm,” Proc. of the 57 th IEEE Semiannual Vehicular Technology Conference 2003-Spring, vol. 4, pp , April [26] V. Bhargavan et al., “MACAW: A New Media Access Protocol for Wireless LANs,” Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, pp , [27] P. Karn, “MACA – A New Channel Access Method for Packet Radio,” in ARRL/CRRL Amateur Radio 9th Computer Networking Conference, pp , 1990

83 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali References (contd.) [28] A.Chandra, V.Gummalla, J.O.Limb, “Wireless Medium Access Control Protocols,” IEEE Communications Survey, pp.2-15, Second Quarter [29] T. Camp, Jeff Boleng, and V. Davis, “A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research,” Wireless Communication & Mobile Computing (WCMC): Special issue on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: Research, Trends and Applications, vol. 2, no. 5, pp , [30] L.Bajaj, M.Takai, R.Ahuja, K.Tang, R.Bagrodia, and M.Gerla, “GlomoSim: A Scalable Network Simulation Environment,” CSD Technical report, #990027,UCLA,1997. [31] P. Karn, “MACA – A New Channel Access Method for Packet Radio,” in ARRL/CRRL Amateur Radio 9th Computer Networking Conference, pp , 1990

84 FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali


Download ppt "FDP on Computing & Communication Resources C. Rama Krishna, NITTTR, Chandigarh CEC, Landran, Mohali Dr. C. Rama Krishna Dept. of CSE NITTTR, Chandigarh."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google