Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

802.11a/b/g Networks Herbert Rubens Some slides taken from UIUC Wireless Networking Group.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "802.11a/b/g Networks Herbert Rubens Some slides taken from UIUC Wireless Networking Group."— Presentation transcript:

1 802.11a/b/g Networks Herbert Rubens Some slides taken from UIUC Wireless Networking Group

2 802.11a/b/g Operates in 2 different modes: –Infrastructure mode Associates with an access point All communication goes through the access point Used for wireless access at a company or campus –Peer-to-Peer Ad Hoc Mode If two nodes are within range of each other they can communicate directly with no access point A few users in a room could quickly exchange files with no access point required

3 Infrastructure Access Access Points: –Provide infrastructure access to mobile users –Cover a fixed area –Wired into LAN

4 Peer to Peer Ad Hoc Mode

5 Infrastructure Access

6

7 1 Mbps 2 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 11 Mbps a/b/g are multi-rate devices

8 MAC Layer Fairness Models Per Packet Fairness: If two adjacent senders continuously are attempting to send packets, they should each send the same number of packets. Temporal Fairness: If two adjacent senders are continuously attempting to send packets, they should each be able to send for the same amount of medium time. In single rate networks these are the SAME!

9 Temporal Fairness Example Packet Fairness OAR Temporal Fairness 11 Mbps Link Mbps Link Total Throughput Mbps 11 Mbps 1 Mbps 11 Mbps Per Packet Fairness Temporal Fairness

10 802.11b Channels 11 available channels (in US) Only 3 are non-overlapping!

11 Channel 1Channel 6 Channel 11

12

13 Problems Access Point placement depends on wired network availability Obstructions make it difficult to provide total coverage of an area Site surveys are performed to determine coverage areas Security Concerns: rogue access points in companies etc.. Each Access Point has limited range

14 Peer to Peer Ad Hoc Mode

15 X X X

16 Problems Communication is only possible between nodes which are directly in range of each other

17 Problems for both Infrastructure and Ad hoc Mode If nodes move out of range of the access point (Infrastructure Mode) OR nodes are not in direct range of each other (Ad Hoc Mode) Then communication is not possible!!

18 What if ?? OR Multi-hop Infrastructure Access Multi-hop Ad Hoc Network

19 Multi-hop Infrastructure Access Nodes might be out of range of the access point, BUT in range of other nodes. The nodes in range of the access point could relay packets to allow out of range nodes to communicate. NOT part of

20 Multi-hop Ad Hoc Network If communication is required between two nodes which are out of range of each other, intermediary nodes can forward the packets. NOT part of Source Destination

21 How can this be done? ROUTING!! –Wired Networks: Hierarchical Routing –Network is divided into subnets –Nodes look at netmask and determine if the address is directly reachable. If not, just forward to the default gateway. –Different protocols for different levels of the hierarchy »RIP, OSPF, BGP

22 Wireless Routing Flat routing –You can’t assume that since a node is in your subnet that it is directly accessible –Node must maintain or discover routes to the destination –All nodes are routers

23 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Formed by wireless hosts which may be mobile Without (necessarily) using a pre-existing infrastructure Routes between nodes may potentially contain multiple hops

24 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks May need to traverse multiple links to reach a destination

25 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) Mobility causes route changes

26 Why Ad Hoc Networks ? Ease of deployment Speed of deployment Decreased dependence on infrastructure

27 Many Applications Personal area networking –cell phone, laptop, ear phone, wrist watch Military environments –soldiers, tanks, planes Civilian environments –taxi cab network –meeting rooms –sports stadiums –boats, small aircraft Emergency operations –search-and-rescue –policing and fire fighting

28 Challenges Limited wireless transmission range Broadcast nature of the wireless medium Packet losses due to transmission errors Mobility-induced route changes Mobility-induced packet losses Battery constraints Potentially frequent network partitions Ease of snooping on wireless transmissions (security hazard)

29 Unicast Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

30 Why is Routing in MANET different ? Host mobility –link failure/repair due to mobility may have different characteristics than those due to other causes Rate of link failure/repair may be high when nodes move fast New performance criteria may be used –route stability despite mobility –energy consumption

31 Unicast Routing Protocols Many protocols have been proposed Some have been invented specifically for MANET Others are adapted from previously proposed protocols for wired networks No single protocol works well in all environments –some attempts made to develop adaptive protocols

32 Routing Protocols Proactive protocols –Determine routes independent of traffic pattern –Traditional link-state and distance-vector routing protocols are proactive Reactive protocols –Maintain routes only if needed Hybrid protocols

33 Trade-Off Latency of route discovery –Proactive protocols may have lower latency since routes are maintained at all times –Reactive protocols may have higher latency because a route from X to Y will be found only when X attempts to send to Y Overhead of route discovery/maintenance –Reactive protocols may have lower overhead since routes are determined only if needed –Proactive protocols can (but not necessarily) result in higher overhead due to continuous route updating Which approach achieves a better trade-off depends on the traffic and mobility patterns

34 Overview of Unicast Routing Protocols

35 Flooding for Data Delivery Sender S broadcasts data packet P to all its neighbors Each node receiving P forwards P to its neighbors Sequence numbers used to avoid the possibility of forwarding the same packet more than once Packet P reaches destination D provided that D is reachable from sender S Node D does not forward the packet

36 Flooding for Data Delivery B A S E F H J D C G I K Represents that connected nodes are within each other’s transmission range Z Y Represents a node that has received packet P M N L

37 Flooding for Data Delivery B A S E F H J D C G I K Represents transmission of packet P Represents a node that receives packet P for the first time Z Y Broadcast transmission M N L

38 Flooding for Data Delivery B A S E F H J D C G I K Node H receives packet P from two neighbors: potential for collision Z Y M N L

39 Flooding for Data Delivery B A S E F H J D C G I K Node C receives packet P from G and H, but does not forward it again, because node C has already forwarded packet P once Z Y M N L

40 Flooding for Data Delivery B A S E F H J D C G I K Z Y M Nodes J and K both broadcast packet P to node D Since nodes J and K are hidden from each other, their transmissions may collide  Packet P may not be delivered to node D at all, despite the use of flooding N L

41 Flooding for Data Delivery B A S E F H J D C G I K Z Y Node D does not forward packet P, because node D is the intended destination of packet P M N L

42 Flooding for Data Delivery B A S E F H J D C G I K Flooding completed Nodes unreachable from S do not receive packet P (e.g., node Z) Nodes for which all paths from S go through the destination D also do not receive packet P (example: node N) Z Y M N L

43 Flooding for Data Delivery B A S E F H J D C G I K Flooding may deliver packets to too many nodes (in the worst case, all nodes reachable from sender may receive the packet) Z Y M N L

44 Flooding for Data Delivery: Advantages Simplicity May be more efficient than other protocols when rate of information transmission is low enough that the overhead of explicit route discovery/maintenance incurred by other protocols is relatively higher –this scenario may occur, for instance, when nodes transmit small data packets relatively infrequently, and many topology changes occur between consecutive packet transmissions Potentially higher reliability of data delivery –Because packets may be delivered to the destination on multiple paths

45 Flooding for Data Delivery: Disadvantages Potentially, very high overhead –Data packets may be delivered to too many nodes who do not need to receive them Potentially lower reliability of data delivery –Flooding uses broadcasting -- hard to implement reliable broadcast delivery without significantly increasing overhead –Broadcasting in IEEE MAC is unreliable –In our example, nodes J and K may transmit to node D simultaneously, resulting in loss of the packet –in this case, destination would not receive the packet at all


Download ppt "802.11a/b/g Networks Herbert Rubens Some slides taken from UIUC Wireless Networking Group."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google