2Introduction What is communication? In simple words we can say that ““just to convey the message”If we go in more detail we can say that “ communication is the process of transmitting (A B) & Receiving(B A) Messages.
3CommunicationCommunication is the process of sending and receiving information among people…FeedbackSENDERreceiverRECEIVERsender
4Messages not delivered due to “distortion” FeedbackSenderReceiverDistortion
5Why Communications Skills Are So Important ? The purpose of communication is to get your message across to others. This is a process that involves both the sender of the message and the receiver. This process leaves room for error, with messages often misinterpreted (يساء تفسيرها)by one or more of the parties involved. This causes unnecessary confusion.In fact, a message is successful only when both the sender and the receiver perceive it in the same way.
6Why Communications Skills Are So Important ? Communication barriers can pop-up at every stage of the communication process (which consists of sender, message, channel, receiver, feedback and context ) and have the potential to create misunderstanding and confusion.
7Critical success factor for life The majority of your perceived ability comes from how you communicate30% What you know70% How youcommunicate it
8Most common ways to communicate Visual ImagesSpeakingWritingBody Language
9To ensure understanding Communication GoalsTo change behaviorTo get actionTo ensure understandingTo persuadeالإقناعInformationTo get and give
10Effective Communication If some one can achieve the desired level of objective through communication , we can say that it is “effective communication”.e.g. If your communication get the proper response from the receiver it means that you effectively conveyed the message.
11How to achieve effective Communication Encourage creative and Critical ThinkingConsider audience’s information needsConsider Audience's Technical BackgroundConsider Audience's Cultural Background and GenderConsider Audience's Knowledge of the Subject
12BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • Physical barriers • Cultural barriers • Religious barriers • Time pressures • Distractions/interruptions • Failure to wait for feedback/response
13BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Hearing only part of the messageFailure to listenListening with a particular mind-set/prejudice (حكم مسبق)Reacting emotionallyMaking assumptionsAccents
14BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Lack of sensitivity to emotions• Poor volume, tone, emphasis• Not acknowledging person’s experience, emotions, feelings, desires• Jumping from topic to topic• Acting phony (تصنع)
15What causes distortion? SpeakerLanguageWordiness (redundancy)Semantics (meaning)EmotionsAccentListenerPerceptions (understanding)Preconceived notions/expectationsPhysical hearing problemSpeed of thoughtPersonal interestsEmotionsAttention spanNo active listening!
16FEEDBACK: Feedback can be: Verbal Reactions and Non-Verbal Reactions. Positive feedback and Negative feedback.
17Feedback Skills Positive vs. Negative Feedback Positive feedback is more readily and accurately perceived than negative feedbackPositive feedback fits what most people wish to hear and already believe about themselvesNegative feedback is most likely to be accepted when it comes from a credible source if it is objective.Subjective impressions carry weight only when they come from a person with high status and credibility
18Types of Communication Verbal – Communication through language Nonverbal – Communication other than through spoken language. More powerful messages are usually conveyed through nonverbal cues than through words themselves. Paraverbal – Communicating not by what you say, but how you say it.
19Types of Communication (continued) Examples of nonverbal communication include:Body language (e.g., folded arms)Eye contactMuscle tensionPosture (وضعية الوقوف)Proxemics (how close we stand when talking. In the US, people stand between 18 inches to 2 ft. from each other; they get uncomfortable if that boundary is violated. Proxemics vary from culture to culture.
20Types of Communication (Continued) Examples of paraverbal communication include:Voice qualities/voice toneRate of speech (how fast or slow one talks)Rhythm of voice (الإيقاع)Volume
21Strengths and Weaknesses Verbal Communication:Strength - Role of Body Language.Weakness - Not possible to give a long list of directionsWritten Communication:Strength - A proof of a communicationWeakness - Written words does not show a person’s actual feelings.
24Listening is needed everywhere… Listening skills form the basis of:Continued learningTeamwork skillsManagement skillsNegotiation skills
25… But not practiced effectively 70% of all communication isMisunderstoodMisinterpretedRejectedDistortedNot heard
265 Basic reasons we Do Not Listen Listening is Hard WorkCompetitionThe Rush for Action (الإندفاع)Speed differences (120 wpm v/s 360 wpm)Lack of Training
27DEFINITION OF ACTIVE LISTENING Active listening is a way of listening that focuses entirely on what the other person is saying and confirms understanding of both the content of the message and the emotions and feelings underlying the message to ensure that understanding is accurate.
28Rules for good listening Deciding in advance that what a person is saying is not important means probably you'll tune out - and you could miss an opportunity to learn something and to strengthen a relationship.It's difficult to listen if you're too tired, or preoccupied with something else - in those situations, it's best to set aside another time agreeable to both, when you are able to give your full attention.
29Rules for good listening Preconceived ideas about what someone is saying will block communication. When you keep an open mind, you are ready to learn something new.Eye contact reassures (يطمئن) the person speaking that you are listening, and builds trust in a relationship.Don't judge a book by its cover - important information can come from anyone, regardless of the package.Matching your body language with your words through eye contact, a pleasant tone of voice and a warm smile conveys interest and respect. This reassures the person speaking that you feel he/she is important.
30Rules for good listening Asking questions will help the person clarify what he/she is telling you. You can show you understand by paraphrasing - repeating in your own words what the person has said.
31How to be an active listener Set the stageChoose an appropriate physical environmentRemove distractionsBe open and accessibleMaintain relaxed, open posture that shows concentrationEnsure mutual understandingReflect feelingsOffer acknowledgements (say “uh-huh”)Paraphrase main ideasInterrupt to clarify
32How to be an active listener Understand body languageObserve position and posturingMake eye contactConsider expression and gesturesSuspend judgmentConcentrateKeep an open mindHear the person out
33How to be an active listener Give FeedbackRepeat back or summarize to ensure that you understand.Restate what you think you heard and ask, "Have I understood you correctly?"
35Techniques to improve listening skills SUMMARIZEPull together the main points of a speakerPARAPHRASERestate what was said in your own wordsQUESTIONChallenge speaker to think further, clarifying both your and their understanding
36Practice Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is simply restating what another person has said in your own words.Use phrases such as:In other words…I gather that…If I understand what you are saying…What I hear you saying is…Pardon my interruption, but let me see if I understand you correctly…
37Practice Summarizing Try out these summarizing phrases: Summarizing pulls important ideas, facts or data together.Useful for emphasizing key points and setting the stage for further discussion.The person summarizing must listen carefully in order to organize the information systematically.Try out these summarizing phrases:“If I understand you correctly, your main concerns are…”“These seem to be the key ideas you have expressed… ”
38Two basic types of questions Closed questions:Get a one-word response and inhibit thought.Questions begin with who, when and whichOpen-ended questions:Invite unique thought, reflection or an explanation.Questions begin with how, what and how come.
39Practice QuestioningRephrase the following closed questions to make them open-ended:Are you feeling tired?Was the last activity useful?Is there anything bothering you?How do you feel?How do you evaluate the last activity?What is bothering you?
40Active Listening (not!) Behaviors that prevent effective listeningAct distracted (look at your watch!)Tell your own story without acknowledging theirsGive no responseInvalidate response, be negativeInterruptCriticizeGive advice/solutions quicklyChange the subjectQuickly agreeing with client before they finish speaking
42How to improve my conversation skills? Don’t be shy! خجولCommunication errors can be solved.A conversation is an interactive activity involving listening and speaking from both parties.It’s all about listening and asking questions.Lulls (السكتات أو فترات الهدوء) are normal.If a conversation is going wrong, it may not be your fault.
43How to introduce myself? Greet with smileMaintain eye contactGive a firm handshakeTell your nameAsk for the other person’s nameRepeat the other person’s nameNever draw a negative picture of yourself
44How to have a great conversation? Relax and forget about yourselfListenAsk questionsUse a friendly toneChoose your words and questions carefullyNeither interrupt a person in the middle of his thought, nor speak on top of itCompliment (جامل ) the other personThank for a great conversation
45How to handle a difficult question? Personal questionI’m sorry, but I’d prefer not to answer this question.Question you don’t know the answerI have no idea.Question you didn’t catchCan you repeat the question?Question you don’t understand because of unfamiliar words or question structureI’m sorry, but I don’t understand your question. Would you mind telling it in different words?/What do you mean by…?/What does…mean?
46How to improve speaking? Listening and reading aloudWritingNetworking and making friendsGreeting people on the streetHaving small talks in publicWatching foreign movies with English subtitlesJoining one-on-one conversations, conversation and common interest groups
47How to improve listening? Speaking to English speakersWatching TV and moviesListening to radioReading audio booksSinging English songsPracticing pronunciationJoining conversation groups/one-on-one conversations
48How to improve comprehension? Reading picture books or comicsReading newspapers and magazinesAsking questions during conversationsWatching TV and moviesBrowsing English websitesConsulting dictionariesConstantly learning new wordsClarifying meaning of slang and idiomsKnowing grammar