Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Communication Skills. Introduction What is communication? In simple words we can say that ““just to convey the message” If we go in more."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction What is communication? In simple words we can say that ““just to convey the message” If we go in more detail we can say that “ communication is the process of transmitting (A B) & Receiving (B A) Messages.
Communication SENDERRECEIVER Feedback receiver sender Communication is the process of sending and receiving information among people…
Messages not delivered due to “distortion” Sender Receiver Feedback Distortion
Why Communications Skills Are So Important ? The purpose of communication is to get your message across to others. This is a process that involves both the sender of the message and the receiver. This process leaves room for error, with messages often misinterpreted ( يساء تفسيرها )by one or more of the parties involved. This causes unnecessary confusion. In fact, a message is successful only when both the sender and the receiver perceive it in the same way.
Communication barriers can pop-up at every stage of the communication process (which consists of sender, message, channel, receiver, feedback and context ) and have the potential to create misunderstanding and confusion. Why Communications Skills Are So Important ?
Critical success factor for life The majority of your perceived ability comes from how you communicate 70% How you communicate it 30% What you know
Most common ways to communicate Speaking Visual Images Writing Body Language
Communication Goals To change behavior To get action To ensure understanding To persuade الإقناع To get and give Information
Effective Communication If some one can achieve the desired level of objective through communication, we can say that it is “effective communication”. e.g. If your communication get the proper response from the receiver it means that you effectively conveyed the message.
How to achieve effective Communication Encourage creative and Critical Thinking Consider audience’s information needs Consider Audience's Technical Background Consider Audience's Cultural Background and Gender Consider Audience's Knowledge of the Subject
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Physical barriers Cultural barriers Religious barriers Time pressures Distractions/interruptions Failure to wait for feedback/response
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Hearing only part of the message Failure to listen Listening with a particular mind-set/prejudice ( حكم مسبق ) Reacting emotionally Making assumptions Accents
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Lack of sensitivity to emotions Poor volume, tone, emphasis Not acknowledging person’s experience, emotions, feelings, desires Jumping from topic to topic Acting phony ( تصنع )
What causes distortion? Speaker – Language – Wordiness (redundancy) – Semantics (meaning) – Emotions – Accent Listener – Perceptions (understanding) – Preconceived notions/expectations – Physical hearing problem – Speed of thought – Personal interests – Emotions – Attention span – No active listening!
FEEDBACK: Feedback can be: Verbal Reactions and Non-Verbal Reactions. Positive feedback and Negative feedback.
Feedback Skills Positive vs. Negative Feedback Positive feedback is more readily and accurately perceived than negative feedback Positive feedback fits what most people wish to hear and already believe about themselves Negative feedback is most likely to be accepted when it comes from a credible source if it is objective. Subjective impressions carry weight only when they come from a person with high status and credibility
Types of Communication Verbal – Communication through language Nonverbal – Communication other than through spoken language. More powerful messages are usually conveyed through nonverbal cues than through words themselves. Paraverbal – Communicating not by what you say, but how you say it.
Types of Communication (continued) Examples of nonverbal communication include: Body language (e.g., folded arms) Eye contact Muscle tension Posture ( وضعية الوقوف ) Proxemics (how close we stand when talking. In the US, people stand between 18 inches to 2 ft. from each other; they get uncomfortable if that boundary is violated. Proxemics vary from culture to culture.
Types of Communication (Continued) Examples of paraverbal communication include: Voice qualities/voice tone Rate of speech (how fast or slow one talks) Rhythm of voice ( الإيقاع ) Volume
Strengths and Weaknesses Verbal Communication: Strength- Role of Body Language. Weakness- Not possible to give a long list of directions Written Communication : Strength- A proof of a communication Weakness- Written words does not show a person’s actual feelings.
Listening is needed everywhere… Listening skills form the basis of: – Continued learning – Teamwork skills – Management skills – Negotiation skills
… But not practiced effectively 70% of all communication is – Misunderstood – Misinterpreted – Rejected – Distorted – Not heard
5 Basic reasons we Do Not Listen Listening is Hard Work Competition The Rush for Action ( الإندفاع ) Speed differences (120 wpm v/s 360 wpm) Lack of Training
DEFINITION OF ACTIVE LISTENING Active listening is a way of listening that focuses entirely on what the other person is saying and confirms understanding of both the content of the message and the emotions and feelings underlying the message to ensure that understanding is accurate.
Rules for good listening Deciding in advance that what a person is saying is not important means probably you'll tune out - and you could miss an opportunity to learn something and to strengthen a relationship. It's difficult to listen if you're too tired, or preoccupied with something else - in those situations, it's best to set aside another time agreeable to both, when you are able to give your full attention.
Preconceived ideas about what someone is saying will block communication. When you keep an open mind, you are ready to learn something new. Eye contact reassures ( يطمئن ) the person speaking that you are listening, and builds trust in a relationship. Don't judge a book by its cover - important information can come from anyone, regardless of the package. Matching your body language with your words through eye contact, a pleasant tone of voice and a warm smile conveys interest and respect. This reassures the person speaking that you feel he/she is important. Rules for good listening
Asking questions will help the person clarify what he/she is telling you. You can show you understand by paraphrasing - repeating in your own words what the person has said. Rules for good listening
How to be an active listener Set the stage – Choose an appropriate physical environment – Remove distractions – Be open and accessible – Maintain relaxed, open posture that shows concentration Ensure mutual understanding – Reflect feelings – Offer acknowledgements (say “uh-huh”) – Paraphrase main ideas – Interrupt to clarify
How to be an active listener Understand body language – Observe position and posturing – Make eye contact – Consider expression and gestures Suspend judgment – Concentrate – Keep an open mind – Hear the person out
Give Feedback Repeat back or summarize to ensure that you understand. Restate what you think you heard and ask, "Have I understood you correctly?" How to be an active listener
Techniques to improve listening skills PARAPHRASE Restate what was said in your own wordsPARAPHRASE SUMMARIZE Pull together the main points of a speakerSUMMARIZE QUESTION Challenge speaker to think further, clarifying both your and their understandingQUESTION
Practice Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is simply restating what another person has said in your own words. Use phrases such as: – In other words… – I gather that… – If I understand what you are saying… – What I hear you saying is… – Pardon my interruption, but let me see if I understand you correctly…
Practice Summarizing Summarizing pulls important ideas, facts or data together. Useful for emphasizing key points and setting the stage for further discussion. The person summarizing must listen carefully in order to organize the information systematically. Try out these summarizing phrases: – “If I understand you correctly, your main concerns are…” – “These seem to be the key ideas you have expressed… ”
Two basic types of questions 1.Closed questions: – G et a one-word response and inhibit thought. – Questions begin with who, when and which 2.Open-ended questions: – Invite unique thought, reflection or an explanation. – Questions begin with how, what and how come.
Practice Questioning Rephrase the following closed questions to make them open-ended: 1.Are you feeling tired? 2.Was the last activity useful? 3.Is there anything bothering you?
Active Listening (not!) Behaviors that prevent effective listening – Act distracted (look at your watch!) – Tell your own story without acknowledging theirs – Give no response – Invalidate response, be negative – Interrupt – Criticize – Give advice/solutions quickly – Change the subject – Quickly agreeing with client before they finish speaking
How to improve my conversation skills? Don’t be shy! خجول Communication errors can be solved. A conversation is an interactive activity involving listening and speaking from both parties. It’s all about listening and asking questions. Lulls ( السكتات أو فترات الهدوء ) are normal. If a conversation is going wrong, it may not be your fault.
How to introduce myself? Greet with smile Maintain eye contact Give a firm handshake Tell your name Ask for the other person’s name Repeat the other person’s name Never draw a negative picture of yourself
How to have a great conversation? Relax and forget about yourself Listen Ask questions Use a friendly tone Choose your words and questions carefully Neither interrupt a person in the middle of his thought, nor speak on top of it Compliment ( جامل ) the other person Thank for a great conversation
How to handle a difficult question? Personal question I’m sorry, but I’d prefer not to answer this question. Question you don’t know the answer I have no idea. Question you didn’t catch Can you repeat the question? Question you don’t understand because of unfamiliar words or question structure I’m sorry, but I don’t understand your question. Would you mind telling it in different words?/What do you mean by…?/What does…mean?
How to improve speaking? Listening and reading aloud Writing Networking and making friends Greeting people on the street Having small talks in public Watching foreign movies with English subtitles Joining one-on-one conversations, conversation and common interest groups
How to improve listening? Speaking to English speakers Watching TV and movies Listening to radio Reading audio books Singing English songs Practicing pronunciation Joining conversation groups/one-on-one conversations
How to improve comprehension? Reading picture books or comics Reading newspapers and magazines Asking questions during conversations Watching TV and movies Browsing English websites Consulting dictionaries Constantly learning new words Clarifying meaning of slang and idioms Knowing grammar