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Part 1 Carbohydrates. Energy Release When bonds are broken, __________ is released for use by the cell energy Sucrose: A disaccharide GlucoseFructose.

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Presentation on theme: "Part 1 Carbohydrates. Energy Release When bonds are broken, __________ is released for use by the cell energy Sucrose: A disaccharide GlucoseFructose."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part 1 Carbohydrates

2 Energy Release When bonds are broken, __________ is released for use by the cell energy Sucrose: A disaccharide GlucoseFructose Monosaccharides ATP

3 Energy Storage Glucose: A MonosaccharideFructose: A Monosaccharide When bonds are made, energy (E) is stored Sucrose: A dissaccharide

4 Carbohydrates 1. Carbohydrates are: –an important energy (E) source –Cellular structures 2. Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1 3. General Formula (CH 2 O)n CH2OH2O Water = hydrate Carbon hydrate

5 Types of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides (simple sugars) –Contain 3-7 Carbons each Examples: Glucose, Galactose, Fructose Glucose

6 Types of Carbohydrates, cont… Disaccharides (two sugars) Examples: Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose –Maltose = Glucose + Glucose –Lactose = Glucose + Galactose Sucrose GlucoseFructose

7 Types of Carbohydrates, cont… Polysaccharides (many sugars) Examples: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose Starch Cellulose ChloroplastStarch Glycogen Liver Cell Plant Cells Cellulose

8 Check for Understanding… I’m a carbohydrate polymer made of 4 monomers. What are my monomers called? Monosaccharides, of course!

9 Part 2 Bond Energy and Energy Storing Compounds ATP, NADPH, FADH 2, NADH

10 How is energy released? When bonds are made by dehydration synthesis, energy is stored within the bonds of the compound. Sucrose: A disaccharide GlucoseFructose Monosaccharides ATP OH HO

11 How is energy released? When bonds are broken by hydrolysis, __________ is released from the bonds energy Sucrose: A disaccharide GlucoseFructose Monosaccharides ATP

12 What are some examples of common energy storing compounds? 1.ATP (Most important usable energy for the cell.) 2.NADPH 3.FADH2 4.NADH

13 How is ATP made? ATP is made from the precursor AMP (Adenosine Mono-phosphate) If a phophate and energy is added to AMP, ADP is created. Furthermore, if another phosphate is added to ADP, ATP is created.

14 How ATP is Made AMP ADP ATP A A A PP PPP P

15 Equation for ATP synthesis ADP + P + energy  ATP

16 How are NADPH, FADH2, and NADH made? NADP + + H + + electrons  NADPH FAD + + 2H + + electrons  FADH 2 NAD + + H + + electrons  NADH Notice that high energy electrons and hydrogen ions (H + ) are needed to create NADPH, FADH2 and NADH.

17 Part 3 Introduction to Photosynthesis Introduction to Photosynthesis

18 1. Mesophyll A layer of cells that contain & are responsible for most of the plant’s photosynthesis chloroplasts Page 2

19 2. Stomata Openings in plant leaves that allow for to occur (CO 2 ) passes in and (O 2 ) passes out. CO 2 O2O2O2O2 gas exchange Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Page 2

20 Mesophyll Cell 3. Chloroplast The site ofPhotosynthesis Double-membrane bound organelle 5. Inner membrane 4. Outer membrane Page 2

21 6. Stroma 7. Thylakoid 8. Grana resides in these membranes Chlorophyll Page 2

22 Pathway of Photosynthesis On your own, balance this equation: CO 2 + H 2 O + (Light)  C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Reactants must equal Products Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Page 4

23 Thylakoid Label the image in your notes, and fill in the notes provided Page 4

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26 Photosynthesis: The Light Reaction are chemical factories powered by the sun. Their thylakoids transform light energy into the energy of and. Page 5 Chloroplasts NADPHATP

27 Page 5 The Nature of Light

28 The particles of light are called. Page 5 The Nature of Light photons

29 Why are leaves green? Substances that absorb light are called Page 5 Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Carotenoids Chlorophyll absorbs and light, reflecting pigments redbluegreen

30 Fluorescence of Chlorophyll Energy of electron Photon Chlorophyll molecule e- Heat Fluorescence Ground state High energy state

31 Photosystems: Harvest Light Photon Transfer of EnergyAntenna pigment molecules Reaction Center Chlorophyll Primary Electron Acceptor Electron Transfer (high energy state)

32 Light Reaction Energy of Electrons Primary Acceptor 2 e- H2OH2O 1) photons 2H + + O 2 2e- Photosystem II Photosystem I 2) Spliiting of water releases O 2 gas and refills 2e- to the chlorophill pigment Electron Transport Chain (ETC) 3) Electrons “fall” in energy, moving through a protein complex called the ETC, and ATP is created from this energy ATP 2e- 4) photons Primary Acceptor 2e- ETC NADP + + H + NADPH making enzyme NADPH 5)

33 Mechanical analogy for the light reactions 1.Photon excites an electron in Photosystem II 2.ATP is produced during this stage (ETC) 3.The electron moves on to Photosystem I 4.An electron is excited by another photon 5.NADPH is produced

34 ATP Synthetase An enzyme embedded in the Thylakoid membrane thylakoid membrane Creates ATP from the electron’s energy in the ETC

35 Protein Complex Enzyme

36 Summary of the Light Reaction

37 ADP PiPi ATP e-4e- NADP+ NADPH

38 Dark Reaction: An Overview The General Formula for Photosynthesis is: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + (Light )  C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 Which of these reactants has not been accounted for so far?

39 ATP & NADPH energy are used to convert CO 2 into glucose NADPH ATP CO 2 Sugar! This is done in a three-phase cycle…

40 STEP 1: Carbon fixation 5-Carbon Sugar (RuBP) + CO 2 two 3-Carbon Compounds (PGA) RuBPPGA

41 ATP and NADPH energy is used This energy rearranges atoms of PGA PGA changes into PGAL, a different 3-carbon sugar PGAL Phase 2: Makes PGAL, a 3- Carbon sugar

42 PGAL Phase 2: Makes PGAL, a 3- Carbon sugar

43 Let’s play the photosynthesis magnet board race!

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