Presentation on theme: "Part 1 Carbohydrates. Energy Release When bonds are broken, __________ is released for use by the cell energy Sucrose: A disaccharide GlucoseFructose."— Presentation transcript:
Part 1 Carbohydrates
Energy Release When bonds are broken, __________ is released for use by the cell energy Sucrose: A disaccharide GlucoseFructose Monosaccharides ATP
Energy Storage Glucose: A MonosaccharideFructose: A Monosaccharide When bonds are made, energy (E) is stored Sucrose: A dissaccharide
Carbohydrates 1. Carbohydrates are: –an important energy (E) source –Cellular structures 2. Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1 3. General Formula (CH 2 O)n CH2OH2O Water = hydrate Carbon hydrate
Types of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides (simple sugars) –Contain 3-7 Carbons each Examples: Glucose, Galactose, Fructose Glucose
Check for Understanding… I’m a carbohydrate polymer made of 4 monomers. What are my monomers called? Monosaccharides, of course!
Part 2 Bond Energy and Energy Storing Compounds ATP, NADPH, FADH 2, NADH
How is energy released? When bonds are made by dehydration synthesis, energy is stored within the bonds of the compound. Sucrose: A disaccharide GlucoseFructose Monosaccharides ATP OH HO
How is energy released? When bonds are broken by hydrolysis, __________ is released from the bonds energy Sucrose: A disaccharide GlucoseFructose Monosaccharides ATP
What are some examples of common energy storing compounds? 1.ATP (Most important usable energy for the cell.) 2.NADPH 3.FADH2 4.NADH
How is ATP made? ATP is made from the precursor AMP (Adenosine Mono-phosphate) If a phophate and energy is added to AMP, ADP is created. Furthermore, if another phosphate is added to ADP, ATP is created.
How ATP is Made AMP ADP ATP A A A PP PPP P
Equation for ATP synthesis ADP + P + energy ATP
How are NADPH, FADH2, and NADH made? NADP + + H + + electrons NADPH FAD + + 2H + + electrons FADH 2 NAD + + H + + electrons NADH Notice that high energy electrons and hydrogen ions (H + ) are needed to create NADPH, FADH2 and NADH.
Part 3 Introduction to Photosynthesis Introduction to Photosynthesis
1. Mesophyll A layer of cells that contain & are responsible for most of the plant’s photosynthesis chloroplasts Page 2
2. Stomata Openings in plant leaves that allow for to occur (CO 2 ) passes in and (O 2 ) passes out. CO 2 O2O2O2O2 gas exchange Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Page 2
Mesophyll Cell 3. Chloroplast The site ofPhotosynthesis Double-membrane bound organelle 5. Inner membrane 4. Outer membrane Page 2
6. Stroma 7. Thylakoid 8. Grana resides in these membranes Chlorophyll Page 2
Pathway of Photosynthesis On your own, balance this equation: CO 2 + H 2 O + (Light) C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Reactants must equal Products Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Page 4
Thylakoid Label the image in your notes, and fill in the notes provided Page 4
Photosynthesis: The Light Reaction are chemical factories powered by the sun. Their thylakoids transform light energy into the energy of and. Page 5 Chloroplasts NADPHATP
Page 5 The Nature of Light
The particles of light are called. Page 5 The Nature of Light photons
Why are leaves green? Substances that absorb light are called Page 5 Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Carotenoids Chlorophyll absorbs and light, reflecting pigments redbluegreen
Fluorescence of Chlorophyll Energy of electron Photon Chlorophyll molecule e- Heat Fluorescence Ground state High energy state
Photosystems: Harvest Light Photon Transfer of EnergyAntenna pigment molecules Reaction Center Chlorophyll Primary Electron Acceptor Electron Transfer (high energy state)
Light Reaction Energy of Electrons Primary Acceptor 2 e- H2OH2O 1) photons 2H + + O 2 2e- Photosystem II Photosystem I 2) Spliiting of water releases O 2 gas and refills 2e- to the chlorophill pigment Electron Transport Chain (ETC) 3) Electrons “fall” in energy, moving through a protein complex called the ETC, and ATP is created from this energy ATP 2e- 4) photons Primary Acceptor 2e- ETC NADP + + H + NADPH making enzyme NADPH 5)
Mechanical analogy for the light reactions 1.Photon excites an electron in Photosystem II 2.ATP is produced during this stage (ETC) 3.The electron moves on to Photosystem I 4.An electron is excited by another photon 5.NADPH is produced
ATP Synthetase An enzyme embedded in the Thylakoid membrane thylakoid membrane Creates ATP from the electron’s energy in the ETC
Protein Complex Enzyme
Summary of the Light Reaction
ADP PiPi ATP e-4e- NADP+ NADPH
Dark Reaction: An Overview The General Formula for Photosynthesis is: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + (Light ) C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 Which of these reactants has not been accounted for so far?
ATP & NADPH energy are used to convert CO 2 into glucose NADPH ATP CO 2 Sugar! This is done in a three-phase cycle…
STEP 1: Carbon fixation 5-Carbon Sugar (RuBP) + CO 2 two 3-Carbon Compounds (PGA) RuBPPGA
ATP and NADPH energy is used This energy rearranges atoms of PGA PGA changes into PGAL, a different 3-carbon sugar PGAL Phase 2: Makes PGAL, a 3- Carbon sugar
PGAL Phase 2: Makes PGAL, a 3- Carbon sugar
Let’s play the photosynthesis magnet board race!