Presentation on theme: "Southwest Missouri State University"— Presentation transcript:
1Southwest Missouri State University An Overview of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs); Diversity and Dynamics of Toxic AlgaeRussell G. RhodesDepartment of BiologySouthwest Missouri State University
2My Interests in HABs 1. Resource for MDC 1989- Notified by Missouri Department of Conservation of a Fish Kill by “Bluegreen algae”Identified presumptive agent as a dinoflagellate1990- A graduate student worked out the life history1991- Published a paper about the organismFields, S. D. and R. G. Rhodes Ingestion and retention of Chroomonas spp. (Cryptophyceae) by Gymnodinium acidotum (Dinophyceae). J. Phycology 27:
32. Resource for Department of Natural Resources: Public Health Problem from Drinking Water Small town west of Springfield had 98 cases of gastrointestinal illness in June, 1990Analysis of water reservoir showed possible blue-green algal bloom; call for survey came late in bloomAnalysis of drinking water in hospital showed numerous algae including possible toxin formers.
43. My Professional Involvement as Teacher BIO 530- PhycologySpring Semester, 2001Thanks for joining this site at 02/22/2002 8:55:55 AM! (CST)Southwest Missouri State University Department of Biology Instructor: Russell G. Rhodes Office: Room 306, Kings Street Annex Phone:The illustration to the right is a colony of Volvox, a member of the order Volvocales, Class Chlorophyceae.
5Number of Occurrences of a Harmful Algal Blooms (Red and Brown Tides) Over the Past Decade
6Changes in Incidence of Marine Algal Toxin Occurrences http://www
7Changes in Incidence of Marine Algal Toxin Occurrences 25 Years Later
8Headlines on HABs from Marine Habitats “Sea lion deaths linked to toxic algae bloom” (AP) –” The deaths of more than 400 California sea lions in 1998 have been traced to toxic algae that literally caused their brain cells to explode.” Source:“UC SANTA CRUZ RESEARCHERS TRACE TOXINS FROM ALGAL BLOOMS THROUGH THE MARINE FOOD WEB IN MONTEREY BAY” Source:“CONSUMERS ADVISED NOT TO EAT SPORT-HARVESTED SHELLFISH, CRAB, SARDINES AND ANCHOVIES FROM MONTEREY BAY “ Source:
9Moving to Freshwater Habitats and Things that Grab Your Attention “Thousands of Fish Are Dying in Texas Lakes” (WFAA.com, Dallas/Forth Worth)“Ingestion of the toxic material was implicated in the death of a pet dog and the illness of children who swam in the lake.” (Bernadette Rae Kenworthy, Master’s Thesis, U. Washington)Alligator killer- Cylindrospermopsis, a blue-green alga (Visual Contrast Sensitivity Test Center)
10Other Things that Grab Your Attention in Freshwater Habitats Lesser Flamingoes Deaths in Lake Bogoria (Kenya Wildlife Service)Liver Failure with Death after Exposure to Microcystins at a Hemodialysis Center in Brazil. Jochimsen et al. (Brazil and CDC) NEJM 338: , 1998.Water with toxic bluegreen algae suspected in high rate of liver cancer at locations in China Ueno, et al Detection of microcystins ….inChina ….Carcinogenesis 17:
11No Swimming due to Toxic Algal Bloom of Blue-Green Algae With permission, Chris Foxall, U. East Angilia, UK
12Appearance of Blue-green Algal Bloom in Minnesota lake (with permission of Will Munson and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
13And Closer to HomeThe algal blooms (Aphanizomenon) were responsible for early morning oxygen sags, which in turn led to partial kills of the largemouth bass and bluegill populations.“539 (80 percent of water treatment facility samples that were submitted for testing) were positive for microcystins when tested by immunoassay.”“Microcystis, a blue-green algae that is harmful to humans and deadly to plants and fish, has returned to a small area of western Lake Erie after a 10-year absence.
14Countries- 42 (Worldwide) Canada- 6 provinces United States- 32 states Incidences of Toxic Cyanobacteria and Microcystin in Freshwater (compiled by Kotak, 1991; Yoo et al., 1995; Johnson, unpublished, Carmichael, AWWA Research News, Project No. 256)Countries- 42 (Worldwide)Canada- 6 provincesUnited States- 32 states80% of samples from utility waters in US contained microcystin, a hepatotoxin
15Understanding the Algae Basic Colors (Natural Groups) Golden BrownsBlue-greensDiatomsDinoflagellates
16Brief Synopsis of Blue-green Algae Blue green due to phycocyanin and chlorophyllForms can be unicellular, colonial, or filamentousCells without nucleus, but can serve as spores and/or fix nitrogen and have gas vesicles
18Brief Synopsis of Golden Brown Algae Most harmful forms are flagellatesForms may be unicellular or colonialMany are covered with calcareous scalesGolden brown due to xanthophylls and chlorophyllSome are very small, 2-5 microns in diameter
19Known and Suspected Toxic Golden Brown Algae Aureococcus anophagefferensPyrmnesium parvumAureoumbra lagunensis
20Brief Synopsis of Dinoflagellates Most are unicellular, few colonialAbout half are heterotrophic, others are photosyntheticPigments are peridinin, other xanthophylls and chlorophyllMost have lateral “groove”Most are flagellateMost have eyespotand Phytoplankton Ecology Program at North Carolina State University. We borrowed the image from them courtesy of Dr.Dan Kamykowski.
22Brief Synopsis of Diatoms House of two pieces of overlapping glassPores, slots, openings through frustule allow gases, nutrients, exudates to movePigments are fucoxanthin and chlorophyllForms are unicellular, colonial, or filamentousSome are motile by use of material movement in slot(s)
24Brief Synopsis of the Raphiophytes Unicellular with no wallsBiflagellate with apical insertionLarge, u, flattenedPhotosynthetic with chlorophyll, b-carotene and fucoxanthinTrichocystsBoth freshwater and marineChatonella sp.With permission of Mats Kuylenstierna
25Known and Suspected Toxic Raphidiophyte Chattonella veruculosaChattonella sp. “Great amount of human made nitrate from the south part of the North Sea has probably stimulated the algae bloom.” Bloom responsible for fish kills in fish farms.Heterosigma akashiwoFibrocapsa japonica
26Acryonyms Used in Conjunction with Algal Toxins HABs- Harmful Algal BloomsNSP- Neurotoxic Shellfish PoisoningPSP- Paralytic Shellfish PoisoningASP- Amnesic Shellfish PoisoningCTX- Ciguatera ToxinsHWP- Hepatotoxic Water PoisoningPWP- Paralytic Water Poisoning
27Understanding the Main Toxins of Algae Involved in HABs Neurotoxins: anatoxin-a, saxitoxinsHepatotoxins: cylindrospermopsin, microcystins, nodularins
28Some of the Blue-green Algal Genera and Their Toxins (Not all species in a genus produce toxins.)Algal GenusToxinsAnabaenaAnabaenopsisAphanizomenonCylindrospermopsisLyngbyaMicrosystisNodulariaPhormidiumPlanktothrixAnatoxins, MicrocystinsMicrosystinsSaxitoxinsCylindrospermopsinsAplysiatoxinsMicrocystinsNodularinAnatoxinMicrocystins, Saxitoxins
29Cyanobacterial HABs and Human Health Blue-green Microcystis and human healthToxic Cyanoprokaryotes in resource waters: monitoring their occurrence and toxin detection
30Some Dinoflagellates and Their Toxins Gymnodinium catenatum- PSP (Mackenzie and Beauchamp,Alexandrium- PSPPyrodinium- PSPDinophysis- DSPProrocentrum- DSPGambierdiscus- CTX
31Extent of Most Widespread Algal Toxin, PSP * With permission of Dr. F. M. Van Dolah
32Incidence of ASP in North America* *With permission of Dr. F. M. Van Dolah
33Limited Occurrence of Dinoflagellate Neurotoxin (NSP) due to Karenia (Gymnodinium) breve* *With permission of Dr. F. M. Van Dolah
34Incidence of DSP* *With permission of Dr. F. M. Van Dolah
35Incidence of Ciguatera toxin* *With permission of Dr. F. M. Van Dolah
36HABs and Bird Health Source: Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases, General Field Procedures-Domoic acid- death in brown pelicans, Brandt’s cormorantsBrevetoxin- suspected in death of lesser scaupSaxatoxin- suspected in death of common terns, herring gulls, Pacific loons, and others“Toxicosis”- suspected in free ranging ducks, geese, eared grebes, gulls, songbirds
37Some Algal Toxins and Their Effects Nervous system- anatoxins brevetoxin, domoic acid, saxatoxinLiver damage- nodularin, microcystins, aphanotoxins, cylindrospermopsinNecroses- unnamed “bioactive substance” from PfiesteriaSuffication from gill cloggingCell surface interaction preventing egg development
38Coincidence and Correlation “Over the past three decades, the frequency and global distribution of toxic algal incidents appear to have increased, and human intoxications from novel algal sources have occurred. This increase is of particular concern, since it parallels recent evidence of large-scale ecologic disturbances that coincide with trends in global warming.”Marine Algal Toxins: Origins, Health Effects, and Their Increased Occurrence by Frances M. Van Dolah Marine Biotoxins Program, NOAA National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, South Carolina USA
39Concentrations of N and P in Rural Runoff in the Midwestern U. S Concentrations of N and P in Rural Runoff in the Midwestern U.S. from Novotny and Olem (1994)Total N (mg/l)Total P (mg/l)RatioBackground levels5:1Cropland91.27.5:1Feedlots4-6:1Grazed pasture4.570.6:1
40Trends in Eutrophication of Aquatic Systems Novotny, V. and H. Olem Trends in Eutrophication of Aquatic Systems Novotny, V. and H. Olem Water Quality Prevention, Identification, and Management of Diffuse Pollution. VanNostrand Reinhold
41Trends in Eutrophication of Aquatic Systems Novotny, V. and H. Olem Trends in Eutrophication of Aquatic Systems Novotny, V. and H. Olem Water Quality Prevention, Identification, and Management of Diffuse Pollution. VanNostrand Reinhold
42Causative Factors in Bloom Formations: Elser (1999) in “Freshwater Biology” Excess phosphorus (P)General eutrophic conditionsLow N:P ratioFavorable light (bright), water conditions (calm)Daphnia (a zooplankter) dominance (there are exceptions) reducing competitors
43N:P Ratios and their Significance N:P ratios less than 10:1 have been shown to favor dominance of heterocystous blue-green algaeSignificance of heterocyst in blue-greens as site of Nitrogen fixation
44Biological Conditions that may Increase HABs Invasion of exotic animalsZebra mussels in Lake ErieDaphnia lumholtziShift in zooplankton grazersAlgal products may reduce feeding by grazersAbility to survive enhanced UVBR by Alexandrium and Aureoumbra
45Other Causative Factors Fertilizer runoffLivestock wastesBright sunCalm watersChange in zooplanktonic grazers (Buskey, et al. 1997)
46Preventative Measures for Toxins and Toxic Forming Algae Toxin- granulate activated charcoal (GAC)Toxin- powered activated charcoal (PAC)Algae- CuSO4, KMnO4 Above from Karner, et al (2001) in JAWWAAlgae- Virus application
47With permission of http://museum.gov.ns.ca/poison/redtide.htm Dinophysis acutaWith permission ofProrocentrum minimum/monitoring/phyto/prorocentrum.html
48Gymnodinum catenatum, colony and resting cyst With permission of F. Hoe Chang
49Problems in MissouriLack of equipment to routinely do algal assessment in water treatment faciltiesInsufficient time allocated for water monitoring by treatment plant operatorsIn some locations failure to recognize the interests and abilities of treatment plant operators to provide proper monitoring as they see the need
50Solutions in Missouri and Elsewhere: Enhanced Monitoring at a Basic Level Distribution of surplus microscopes to water treatment facilities lacking such equipmentProvision of Secchi disks or other means to monitor turbidity of water prior to entry into plantPeriodic algal assessment of domestic surface water supplies throughout Missouri on a priority basisEarly treatment of reservoir to reduce potential for algal blooms
51Water Collection- Biomass Device in center is a Kemmerer bottle. It is lowered to a specific depth and a “messenger” is sent down the cord to trip the traps.
52Counting Algae: Bright Field and Phase Compound Microscope with TV and monitor
53Counting ChambersTop view is a haemocytometer counting chamber (small algae)Bottom view is Sedgwick-Rafter counting chamber (big algae)
54Inverted Microscope and Identification Manual: Utermohl Technique using Settling Chambers.
55Utermohl Technique for Counting Algae (Quantitative)
56Chemical Assessment Techniques for Monitoring Toxic Algae and Algal Toxins Environmental Sampling Processor (ESP) for identifying toxic eukaryotic algae:Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for microcystin recognition:Neuroreceptor assays for saxatoxinHigh Throughput Receptor Binding Assays For Phycotoxins
57Enzymy Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Technique An excellent overview of the ELISA Technique:
58Links http://courses.smsu.edu/rgr592f Identification and Survey Class\class\Default.htmDefinitive Blue-green algae toxin informationThe IOC Harmful Algal Bloom Programme
59ResourcesNovotny, V. and H. Olem Water Quality Prevention, Identification, and Management of Diffuse Pollution. Van Nostrand and Reibold pp.Smith, V. H Blue-green Algae in Eutrophic Fresh Waters. Lakeline- 2001:34-37.Anderson, D. M. and D. J. Garrison, eds The ecology and oceanography of harmful algal blooms. Limn. Ocean. 42 (5 part 2):Harmful Algal Blooms, Ninth Conference, Tasmania, 2000.