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Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Station Capacity.

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Presentation on theme: "Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Station Capacity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Station Capacity

2 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Presentation Overview Learning objectives Station types & configurations Passenger circulation and level of service Station elements and their capacities Example problems

3 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Learning Objectives Understand the different types of transit stations Be familiar with passenger circulation and level of service concepts Learn about the range of station elements and methods of measuring their capacities Consider some typical station analysis problems

4 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Changes in 3rd Edition Significantly expanded discussion of passenger flow microsimulation Introduction of alternate stair capacity method based on stair lanes (instead of width) Introduction of clearance time analysis method Expanded discussion of volume-to-capacity ratio analysis for station elements Various updates to text

5 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Station Types and Configurations Tower City–Public Square Station, Cleveland

6 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Types of Stops, Stations, and Terminals Bus stops  On-street  Few or no amenities Transit centers  Usually off-street  Few to many amenities Transit stations  Off-street  Many amenities Busway stations Light rail stations Heavy rail stations Commuter rail stations Ferry docks and terminals Intermodal terminals

7 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Types of Stops, Stations, and Terminals Illustrated On-street bus stop, Albuquerque Off-street transit center, San Diego Rapid transit station, San Francisco Grand Central Terminal, New York

8 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Passenger Circulation and Level of Service Rapid transit station, Toronto

9 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Principles of Pedestrian Flow Pedestrian speed is related to pedestrian density  The more pedestrians, the slower the average pedestrian speed Flow (how many pedestrians can pass by a given point) is the product of pedestrian speed and density:  V = S ×D  Units: pedestrians per foot width per minute Average space per pedestrian is related to speed and flow:  M = S / V Units: square feet per pedestrian Minato Mirai Station, Yokohama

10 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Applying Pedestrian Flow Principles Most design problems relate to solving for either:  Station element width (e.g., stairway width)  Station element area (e.g., platform area) Result is a station element sized to accommodate a given number of persons per hour, at a design level of service Peel Station, Montreal

11 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Design Questions How many bus bays (loading areas) are needed? Is there enough room for passengers to wait and circulate? Is there enough space & passenger demand for particular amenities? Springfield Station, Springfield, Oregon

12 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition More Design Questions Are passenger processing elements (e.g., stairs, escalators, and faregates) adequately sized and provided in sufficient number? Which station element(s) constrain capacity? What are the requirements for emergency evacuation? South Kensington Station, London

13 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Design Issues Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)  ADA requirements affect design  Addressed in TCQSM to the extent it impacts the sizing of station elements  TCQSM provides input into the design process, but isn’t a design manual Springfield Station, Springfield, Oregon

14 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Emergency Evacuation

15 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Emergency Evacuation Design Station design must address evacuation requirements  Maximum time to evacuate platforms and reach a point of safety  Based on worst-case passenger accumulations Overall passenger flow through station is an important consideration (watch for bottlenecks!) National Fire Protection Association standard 130 (NFPA 130) specifies evacuation design needs  “Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems”

16 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition NFPA 130 General Considerations Sufficient exit capacity to evacuate station occupants (including those on trains) from platforms in 4.0 minutes or less Sufficient exit capacity to get from most remote point on platform to point of safety in 6.0 minutes or less Second egress route remote from major egress route from each platform Maximum distance to an exit from any point on a platform not more than 325 ft Limits on assuming availability of escalators for evacuation capacity Above based on the 2010 version of the standard  Always check the most recent version  Typically updated every 3 years

17 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Number of People to Design for Evacuation Loads of one peak period train on each track  Assume each train is one headway late (i.e., is carrying twice its normal load, but no more than its maximum capacity load) Passengers on platform during the peak 15 minutes, assuming trains are one headway late

18 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Design for Both Evacuation and Normal Operations Maximum capacity required for normal operations or emergency evacuation will govern the sizing of a station element Because emergency evacuation routes may be different than the routes taken by passengers during normal operations, don’t assume that evacuation needs will govern in all cases

19 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Station Elements and Their Capacities Canary Wharf Station, London (weekend)

20 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Find the Station Elements Shelter Ticket Machine Pedestrian Access Bus Access Walkway Customer Info Bench Phone Trash Can Lighting Landscaping Guideway Platform Stairs Elevator Sunset Transit Center, near Portland

21 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Not Pictured… Faregates Park-and-ride Bike storage Artwork Electronic displays Station agents Doorways/gates Restrooms Driver break areas Vending machines Escalators Ramps Kiss-and-ride Moving walkways

22 Waiting Areas Streetcar stop, Portland

23 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Passenger Waiting Areas Process for sizing passenger waiting areas is based on designing for a desirable level of service Concepts originally presented in Fruin’s Pedestrian Planning & Design HCM has similar concepts, but intended for sidewalks—TCQSM’s levels of service are intended for transit facilities Level of service measure: average space per person

24 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Waiting Area LOS LOS A LOS B LOS C LOS D LOS E LOS F ≥ 13 ft 2 per person ft 2 per person 7-10 ft 2 per person 3-7 ft 2 per person 2-3 ft 2 per person < 2 ft 2 per person

25 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Walkways Ferry terminal, New Orleans

26 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Pedestrian Flow on Walkways Source: J. Fruin, Pedestrian Planning and Design

27 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Walkway LOS LOS A LOS B LOS C LOS D LOS E LOS F ≥ 35 ft 2 /p, avg. speed 260 ft/min ft 2 /p, avg. speed 250 ft/min ft 2 /p, avg. speed 240 ft/min ft 2 /p, avg. speed 225 ft/min 5-10 ft 2 /p, avg. speed 150 ft/min < 5 ft 2 /p, avg. speed <150 ft./min

28 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Walkway LOS Source: J. Fruin, Pedestrian Planning and Design

29 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Walkways Typical average free flow pedestrian speed for design: 250 ft/min Capacity occurs at LOS E/F threshold  Pedestrians move at a shuffle

30 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Walkway Design Process 1.Based on desired LOS, identify maximum flow rate per unit width 2.Estimate demand for peak 15 minutes (or shorter period surges) 3.Allow for wheelchairs and people with large items 4.Compute design pedestrian flow: (Step 2) / 15 5.Effective width = (Step 4 / Step 1) 6.Add appropriate buffer width on each side (depends on elements to each side)

31 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Stairs and Escalators Hollywood & Vine Station, Los Angeles

32 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Pedestrian Flow on Stairs Source: J. Fruin, Pedestrian Planning and Design

33 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Pedestrian Ascent Speed on Stairs Source: J. Fruin, Pedestrian Planning and Design

34 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Stairway LOS Source: J. Fruin, Pedestrian Planning and Design

35 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Stairway Capacity Factors Even minor reverse-direction flows may reduce stairway capacity by as much as one-half Although sizing procedures may suggest a continuum of stairway widths, capacity is really added in one-person-width increments (roughly 30 inches) Alternate method to analyze stair capacity based on stair “lanes” (new in 3 rd Edition)

36 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Stairway Design Factors Much new construction will use escalators as the primary vertical circulation element  Can design to LOS E in this case Where stairs will be the primary vertical circulation element, design to LOS C to D Emergency evacuation needs may result in better LOS during normal conditions

37 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Stairway Design Process 1.Based on desired LOS, identify maximum flow rate per unit width 2.Estimate peak 15-minute demand 3.Compute design pedestrian flow: (Step 2) / 15 4.Required width = (Step 3 / Step 1) 5.If minor, reverse-direction flow use occurs, add width of one lane (30 inches)

38 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Escalator Capacity Factors Escalator width  Typically “single”, “intermediate”, or “double” width Operating speed Wheaton Station, Washington, DC area

39 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Escalator Capacity Factors Manufacturers often state capacity based on a theoretical capacity—two people on every step—which is never obtained Capacity reduction factors  Intermittent pedestrian arrivals  Pedestrian hesitation at boarding (especially elderly and persons with disabilities)  Pedestrians carrying baggage or packages  Pedestrian desire for a more comfortable spacing

40 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Escalator Capacity Nominal capacity values based on one person every other step (single- width), or one person every step (double-width) Intermediate-width escalators have capacity close to double-width but less comfort and flexibility for walking Source: J. Fruin, Pedestrian Planning and Design; unpublished New York City Transit data

41 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Elevators Washington Park Station, Portland

42 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Elevator Usage Usually for persons with disabilities and auxiliary to stairs/escalators, but can be primary vertical circulation in deep stations Deep station access:  New York: 168th, 181st, and 191st Streets  Washington, DC: Forest Glen  Portland, OR: Washington Park When not working, impacts station access for mobility impaired, particularly when only a single elevator is provided Elevator outage information, Washington, DC

43 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Elevator Capacity Calculated similarly to transit vehicle capacity:  Car capacity is combination of loading standard (area per passenger) and elevator floor area  Time to make round-trip, including time to load and unload passengers, and open and close doors Station access elevators sometimes have doors on two sides for simultaneous loading and unloading  Walk-in, walk-out without turning around

44 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Moving Walkways Court Square–23rd Street Station, New York

45 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Moving Walkways Typical speed 100 ft/min, some up to 160 ft/min  Usually slower than typical walking speed Capacity limited at entrance  Speed not a factor for capacity unless it causes persons to hesitate when entering Capacity similar to escalators  Double-width: about 90 people/min

46 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Doorways Manhattan Whitehall ferry terminal, New York

47 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Doorway Capacity Source: J. Fruin, Pedestrian Planning and Design

48 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Fare Control Faregates, Chicago

49 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Fare Control Capacity Each combination of equipment, fare media, and fare structure has a distinct processing time Sources:J. Fruin, Pedestrian Planning and Design Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 2nd Edition L.S. Weinstein, TfL’s Contactless Ticketing: Oyster and Beyond A. Weinstein et al., Human Factor Constraints on Transit Faregate Capacity

50 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Ticket Machines Ticket machines, New York

51 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Ticket Machine Capacity Ticket machines are one of the least-standardized portions of riding transit from one city to another (and sometimes even within cities) Service time per passenger varies widely depending on machine design and complexity of fare system  Considerable variation in design and operation Infrequent passengers require more time Consider impacts of out-of-service machines Consider sun glare issues with outdoor machines

52 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Microsimulation Embarcadero Station, San Francisco

53 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Passenger Flow Microsimulation Use of microsimulation software for analysis of station capacity and exiting requirements is expanded significantly. Microsimulation, which represents the cumulative movement of thousands of individuals, is better able to analyze and present the complex interactions of pedestrians in a busy multi-directional environment. Visual representations better communicate flow patterns and potential issues to decision-makers and the public

54 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Passenger Flow Microsimulation Outputs include video clips, maps, and tabular data Choose simulation parameters and outputs to address relevant issues (not to show off the outputs) Map of Mean Pedestrian Density on a Subway Platform

55 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Passenger Flow Microsimulation Optional: link a short microsimulation video to this slide. Set short clip to auto-loop. PB will provide video clip.

56 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition More Information TCRP Report 165: TCQSM—Chapter 10, Station Capacity John J. Fruin, Pedestrian Planning and Design, Revised Edition, Elevator World, Inc., 1987 The TCQSM is available as:  Free individual printed copies and PDF downloads through the TCRP Dissemination Program  Free PDF downloads directly from TCRP (Publications section) or simply do an Internet search for the report number (e.g., TCRP Report 165)  Individual or multiple copy purchases from the TRB Bookstore

57 Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition Acknowledgments and Permissions Presentation authors  Mark Walker (Parsons Brinkerhoff, Quade & Douglass), based on an earlier presentation by Paul Ryus (Kittelson & Associates, Inc.) Photo credits  Elevator outage & Wheaton station: WMATA photo by Larry Levine  All others: Paul Ryus This presentation was developed through TCRP Project A-15C  Research team: Kittelson & Associates; Parsons Brinkerhoff, Quade & Douglass; KFH Group; Texas A&M Transportation Institute; and Arup  This presentation and its contents may be freely distributed and used, with appropriate credit to the presentation authors and photographers, and the Transit Cooperative Research Program


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