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How Can We Build Healthy & Active Communities? James Sallis, PhD University of California, San Diego For PAPH in Aruba June 14,

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Presentation on theme: "How Can We Build Healthy & Active Communities? James Sallis, PhD University of California, San Diego For PAPH in Aruba June 14,"— Presentation transcript:

1 How Can We Build Healthy & Active Communities? James Sallis, PhD University of California, San Diego For PAPH in Aruba June 14, 2012

2 Maintaining & Building Activity- Friendly Places in Aruba

3 SLOTH Model of Physical Activity S leep L eisure O ccupation T ransportation H ousehold

4 What is being done to improve PA? Minor investment in programs Guided by theories that emphasize psychological & social influences Primary goals are education and behavior change skills training targeting individuals Fragmented, poorly coordinated, poorly funded approaches

5 Psychosocial Models of Health Behavior Individual Biological Psychological Skills Social/Cultural

6 Will individual interventions ever be sufficient?  Interventions based on psychosocial theories can be effective  But not sufficient  Reach is limited  Effects are modest  Maintenance is rare  Programs are not designed to change the root causes of current behavioral patterns

7 An Ecological Model of Health Behavior Individual Biological Psychological Behavioral Skills Social/Cultural Physical Environment Policy Context

8 Different environments----Different congestion

9 Places for Physical Activity L eisure O ccupation T ransportation H ousehold P arks, health clubs, sidewalks W orkplace S treets, bike facilities H ome

10 Comm Design Destinations Home Park & Rec School & Preschool Elements of An Active Living Community Transportation

11 “Walkable”: Mixed use, connected, dense

12 Not “walkable” street connectivity and mixed land use

13 The Neighborhood Quality of Life (NQLS) Study: The Link Between Neighborhood Design and Physical Activity James Sallis Brian Saelens Lawrence Frank And team Results published March 2009 in Social Science and Medicine

14 NQLS Neighborhood Categories Walkability Socioeconomic Status Low High Low 4 per city

15 Accelerometer-based MVPA Min/day in Walkability-by-Income Quadrants Walkability: p =.0002 Income: p =.36 Walkability X Income: p =.57 * Adjusted for neighborhood clustering, gender, age, education, ethnicity, # motor vehicles/adult in household, site, marital status, number of people in household, and length of time at current address.

16 Percent Overweight or Obese (BMI>25) in Walkability-by-Income Quadrants Walkability: p =.007 Income: p =.081 Walkability X Income: p =.26 * Adjusted for neighborhood clustering, gender, age, education, ethnicity, # motor vehicles/adult in household, site, marital status, number of people in household, and length of time at current address.

17 Multiple Pathways from Land Use to Health: Walkability Associations With Active Transportation, Body Mass Index, and Air Quality. Frank et al. JAPA % increase in walkability associated with: –32% increase in walking for transport –¼ point decrease in BMI (about 1.25 pounds) –6.5% decrease in vehicle miles traveled –5.6% decrease in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) grams –5.5% decrease in volatile organic compounds (VOC) grams County government is acting on results

18 Accelerometer-based MVPA Min/day in Walkability-by-Income Quadrants Walkability: F=13.74; p =.000 Income: F=2.59; p =.108 Walkability X Income: F=.001; p =.981 * Adjusted for gender and age

19 Walkable neighborhoods encourage more walking in older adults Older women who live within walking distance of trails, parks or stores recorded significantly higher pedometer readings than women who did not. The more destinations that were close by, the more they walked. Photo: Michael Ronkin, ODOT King, W., Am. J. of Public Health 2003

20 We can learn from international studies Atlanta, USA Ghent, Belgium

21 Multiple Environmental Factors Are Needed to Support Physical Activity: An 11-Country Study of Neighborhood Environments James F. Sallis, USA Heather Bowles, Australia Barbara E. Ainsworth, USA Adrian Bauman, Australia Et al Am J Prev Med. May 2009

22

23 Sallis. Am J Prev Med. 06/09

24 Built environment correlates of physical activity behaviours in a developing city: The case of Bogota, Colombia Olga Lucia Sarmiento and team Universidade de los Andes

25 photo: O.L. Sarmiento

26 Main Results Walking for transport (30 min/day for at least 5 days/week) was positively associated with: –Street density (POR 1.71, 95% CI ) –Street connectivity (POR 2.21, 95% CI ) –Bus Rapid Transit stations in the neighborhood (POR 1.71, 95% CI ) Leisure time physical activity (30 min/day for at least 5 days/week) was positively associated with: –Park density (POR 2.05, 95%CI ) –Bus Rapid Transit stations in the neighbohood (POR 1.27, 95% CI )

27 People with access to parks & recreation Facilities are more likely to be active

28 A national study of US adolescents (N=20,745)* found a greater number of physical activity facilities is directly related to physical activity and inversely related to risk of overweight Gordon-Larsen et al, Pediatrics, *using Add Health data Odds of having 5 or more bouts of MVPA Odds of being overweight Referent

29 People are Most Active on Tracks and Walking Paths Cohen. RAND

30 Activity-Friendly Transportation Systems

31 Room for Improvement Plan & Build for Pedestrians

32 Walkability > Driving > Obesity? Lopez Zetina 2006

33 Obesity falls sharply with increased walking, cycling, and transit use! Credit: John Pucher

34 Wener & Evans, Environment and Behavior, 2007

35 Neighborhood Walkability and Active Commuting to School 201 parents of children aged 4 to 17 Active commuting to school: –25% in hi-walkable neighborhoods –11% in lo-walkable neighborhoods Parent concerns, mostly about traffic, were higher in lo-walkable neighborhoods Kerr, et al. MSSE, 2006

36 Where do people bicycle? The role of infrastructure in determining bicycling behavior Jennifer Dill, Ph.D. Center for Transportation Studies

37 Where do people bicycle in Portland, OR? Based on GPS. Type of road% of bicycle miles % of road miles Without bicycle facilities 5192 With bicycle facilities (lane, separate path, bike boulevard 498 Jennifer Dill. J Public Health Policy

38 The Ministry of Traffic designated Odense as Denmark ’ s National Cycle City ( citizens) Odense – The National Cycle City of Denmark

39 Right-hand turn lanes II - IV

40 Awareness of cyclists II - IV

41 Results : > 50 sub- projects Bicycle traffic increase by 20% Accidents involving cyclists decrease by 20% Odense – The National Cycle City of Denmark

42 Source: Pucher, Dill, and Handy, “Infrastructure, Programs, and Policies to Increase Bicycling,” Preventive Medicine, Jan 2010, Vol. 50, S.1, pp. S106-S125. Increase in Bike Share of Trips in Cities Around the World

43 Bogota, Colombia has invested heavily in walking, cycling, & PA events

44 Boulder, CO

45 Brisbane, Australia has invested in pedestrian facilities *Beautiful pedestrian bridge *Walkways along the river *Pleasing aesthetics

46 Amsterdam is a model for being friendly to pedestrians & cyclists The Incredible Bicycle Parking Structure At the Train Station

47 Decisions about Climate change and Controlling chronic Disease are related

48 Resources from


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