Presentation on theme: "Built Environment in Relation to Obesity and Physical Activity Fuzhong Li, Ph.D. Oregon Research Institute Part II."— Presentation transcript:
Built Environment in Relation to Obesity and Physical Activity Fuzhong Li, Ph.D. Oregon Research Institute Part II
Focus To illustrate Through empirical research, how different elements of the built environment contribute to obesity and physical inactivity Through empirical research, how different elements of the built environment contribute to obesity and physical inactivity To discuss how public health policies and urban planning can address these public health and lifestyle problems and create a living community how public health policies and urban planning can address these public health and lifestyle problems and create a living community
Terminology and Definitions What Is the Built Environment? Encompasses all of the buildings, spaces, and products created or modified by people Encompasses all of the buildings, spaces, and products created or modified by people For example: buildings (housing, schools, workplaces); land use (industrial or residential); public resources (parks, museums); zoning regulations; transportation systems. For example: buildings (housing, schools, workplaces); land use (industrial or residential); public resources (parks, museums); zoning regulations; transportation systems.
What is the Built Environment? Spatial scales: Spatial scales: Micro Small Intermediate Large
Built Environment in Relation to Overweight or Obesity, and Physical Activity: An Ecologic Model Individual factors Genetics Socioeconomic Characteristics Other individual characteristics Social factors Family and peer influences Socioeconomic characteristics Food consumption (energy intake) Physical activity (energy expenditure) Source: Powell et al. (www.impacteen.org) BMI Environmental factors Built environment Economic influences (cost and access) Neighborhood safety (perceived/objective) Transportation opportunities Behaviors Lifestyle/behavioral factors
Built Environment in Relation to Overweight or Obesity Association between the number of residents per fast-food restaurant, and the number of square miles per fast-food restaurant and the prevalence of obesity at the statewide level (Maddock, 2004) Association between the presence of supermarkets and lower prevalence of obesity and overweight; association between presence of convenience stores and high prevalence of obesity and overweight (Mobley et al., 2006)
Built Environment in Relation to Physical Activity Features, such as availability and access to physical activity facilities, street connectivity, net residential density, land-use mix, provision of sidewalks, are associated with increased levels of physical activity. Social and demographic features, such as social capital, neighborhood safety, moderate- socioeconomic status neighborhoods, are associated with increased levels of physical activity, including walking.
Implications Design and build healthy places Design and build healthy places Make it easier for people to live healthy lives www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/default.htm Make it easier for people to live healthy lives www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/default.htm Promote mix use of land Promote mix use of land Houses, businesses, schools, public transit, open space less car dependent, easily to walk or bike Houses, businesses, schools, public transit, open space less car dependent, easily to walk or bike Foster social capital Foster social capital Social networking, civic engagement, personal recreation, activities that create social bounds Social networking, civic engagement, personal recreation, activities that create social bounds between individuals and groups
What Is Healthy Community Design? Decreases dependence on the automobile by building homes, businesses, schools, churches, and parks closer to each other so that people can more easily walk or bike between then. Provides opportunities for people to be physical active and socially engaged as part of their daily routine, improving the physical and mental health of its citizens. Allows persons, if they choose, to age in place and remain all their lives in a community that reflects their changing lifestyles and changing physical capabilities.
What Are the Health Benefits of Healthy Community Design? Promote physical activity Promote physical activity Improve air quality. Improve air quality. Lower risk of injuries Lower risk of injuries Increase social connection and sense of community. Increase social connection and sense of community. Reduce contributions to climate change Reduce contributions to climate change
What Are Some Healthy Community Design Principles? Encourage mixed land use and greater land density to shorten distances between homes, workplaces, schools and creation so people can walk or bike more easily to them Provide goo mass transits to reduce the dependence upon automobiles Build good pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure, including sidewalks and bike paths that are safely removed from automobile traffic as well as good right of way laws an clear, easy-to-follow signage Ensure affordable housing is available for people of all income levels. Create community centers where people can gather and mingle as part of their daily activiteis Offer access to green space and parks
Conclusion “Designing and building healthy communities can improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders – where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options.” CDC – Fact Sheet – Environmental Health
Creating Healthy Communities Transportation alternatives Reduced driving Opportunities for physical activity Mixed land use Density Parks and green spaces Placement of vegetation Energy efficient buildings Clean air and water
What Makes a Neighborhood Walkable? A center : Walkable neighborhoods have a discernable center, whether it's a shopping district, a main street, or a public space. Density : The neighborhood is compact enough for local businesses to flourish and for public transportation to run frequently. Mixed income, mixed use : Housing is provided for everyone who works in the neighborhood: young and old, singles and families, rich and poor. Businesses and residences are located near each other. Parks and public space : There are plenty of public places to gather and play. Pedestrian-centric design : Buildings are placed close to the street to cater to foot traffic, with parking lots relegated to the back. Nearby schools and workplaces: Schools and workplaces are close enough that most residents can walk from their homes.
Potential Partners City and regional planners Developers/builders Transportation planners Architects Medical/health professionals Disease advocacy groups Environmental justice organizations Environmental health agencies Environmental groups Faith community Economic development groups …and many others