Presentation on theme: "National conference on Affordable Housing for All June 2, 2007 Mumbai, India."— Presentation transcript:
National conference on Affordable Housing for All June 2, 2007 Mumbai, India
Construction Sector accounts for 5% of the GDP Gross Annual business Volume : Rs.230,000 crores Growth Rate : 6-8% in recent years Construction is the second largest employer after agriculture Employs about 18 million persons directly and 14 million indirectly Doubled its share in total employment from 2.8% in 1983 to 5.4% in 2003-04 Recorded highest growth rate in employment in the last two decades Construction as a Sector Heading towards better employment opportunities & poverty alleviation ? Source: Sectoral Growth Report for 11 th Plan, CII
Projected Incremental Employment in the Construction Sector (%) Year % age 2006 – 078 2007 – 089 2008 - 09 10 2009 - 10 10 2010 - 11 9 2011 - 12 8 2012 - 13 8 2013 - 14 6 Source : Construction Federation of India Can we develop skilled & certified construction workforce ?
Source: National Buildings Organization 24.71 10.56 6.93 7.18 7.36 7.57 8.23 Programmes & policies to bridge the gap ?
Source: Registrar General of India Are our cities and towns equipped to handle this growth ?
Source: Registrar General of India 12.65 19.86 23.43 20.07 19.44 9.70 15.20 17.24 12.82 11.65 1.95 4.66 6.19 7.25 7.89 How to provide affordable houses ?
Growth of Slums Holistic slum development - Challenge ahead ? Source: Annual Report 2006-07, MoHUPA
Demand for Key Building Materials Materials2001-062006-11 Residential UrbanRuralUrbanRural Cement (ton)124.2649.01195.8977.26 Steel (ton)13.645.2221.808.23 Timber (cu.m.)8.405.8713.249.26 Bricks (000’ nos)318.29281.60501.76443.92 How we can meet the Demand ? Source: BMTPC
(in million cu.m.) Year 2000 2010 2020 Demand 58 95153 Supply 29 70.55 100.7 Gap 29 24.45 52.3 % of demand gap 50 25.7 34 Source : Ministry of Environment & Forests, Personnel Management Report Demand and Supply of Wood Are we really into saving of natural wood
Approximate Break-up of total Construction Cost for different elements of building How to bring cost effectiveness?
Approximate Break-up of total Construction Cost in Materials and Labour How to substitute energy intensive materials? How to economise on material costs?
Estimated Cost Saving on using Innovative / Cost Effective Building Materials/Technologies Cost-Effective TechnologiesIn place of Conventional options % of Saving I. FOUNDATIONS 1.Pile foundation (under reamed)Traditional stone/bricks15 2.Brick Arch foundationsFootings25 II. WALLING (SUPER STRUCTURE) 3.Stabilised mud blocksBurnt brick walls20 4.FaL-G Block masonryClay brick walls20 5.Fly ash brick wallsClay brick walls25 6.Rat trap bond wallsEnglish/Flemish bond25 7.Hollow blocks wallsSolid masonry20
Cost-Effective TechnologiesIn place of Conventional options % of Saving III. ROOFING 8.Brick panel with joistsRCC20-25 9.L-panel sloping roofingRCC10 10.RCC planks over RCC joistsRCC10 11.Ferrocement shell roofingRCC40 12.Filler slab roofingRCC22 13.RCC channel unitsRCC12 14.Micro-concrete roofing tilesClay tile roofing AC sheet roofing 20 15 Estimated Cost Saving on using Innovative / Cost Effective Building Materials/Technologies …contd.
Cost-Effective TechnologiesIn place of Conventional options % of Saving IV. MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 15.RCC door framesTimber Frames30 16.Ferrocement door shuttersTimber shutters (second class timber) 30 17.RCC jalliesTimber windows/ventilators 50 18.Precast thin lintelsRCC lintels25 19.Precast sunshadesCast sunshades30 Estimated Cost Saving on using Innovative / Cost Effective Building Materials/Technologies …contd. Source: Building Materials in India: 50 Years—A Commemorative Volume, BMTPC, 1998.
MaterialPrimary energy requirements of Building Materials (MJ/kg) Very high energy: Aluminium Plastics Copper Stainless steel 200-250 50-100 100+ 100 High energy: Steel Lead, Zinc Glass Cement Plaster board 20-60 25+ 12-25 5-8 8-10 Medium energy: Lime Clay bricks and tiles Concrete In Situ Blocks Precast Sand-lime brick Timber (sawn) 3-5 2-7 0.8-1.5 0.8-3.5 1.5-8 0.8-1.2 0.1-5 Low energy: Sand, aggregate Fly ash, volcanic ash Soil Adobe <0.5 <0.2 Comparative Energy Requirements of Building Materials Do we have energy efficient alternatives?
Energy Intensity of Building Materials How do we substitute these materials?
Building materialCompositionMaterial comparedEnergy savings (%) Portland pozzolana cement 75% Ordinary Portland cement 100% Ordinary Portland cement 20 Portland blast furnace slag cement 60% Ordinary Portland cement 40% Blast furnace slag 100% Ordinary Portland cement 30 Masonry cement50% Ordinary Portland cement 50% Tailings/waste chalk 100% Masonry cement (50% Ordinary Portland cement + 50% limestone) 20 Lime-pozzolana mixture 25% Acetylene gas lime 75% Fly ash 25% Lime 75% Calcined brick 75 Calcium silicate brick 90% Fly ash tailings 10% lime (waste source) Burnt clay brick40 Burnt brick75% Clay 25% Fly ash Burnt clay brick15 Source: Building Materials in India: 50 Years—A Commemorative Volume, BMTPC, 1998. Energy Savings in the Manufacture of Building Materials through Use of Industrial Wastes
Resource and Energy Saving through Use of Natural Fibres and Agro-Wastes in Building Materials Waste and Commercial productTraditional resourceEnergy sourceusing natural fibre fully or partly saved% & agro-waste 1. Coir fibre Coir fibre-cement Asbestos10 (coir industry)roofing sheet & panels 2.Rice husk Rick-husk- cement Resin (PF or UF)20 (Rice mill)building boardbonded particle board timber 3.Ground nut Ground nut- hull-Resin-bonded20 hulls (Oil mills)cement building boardparticle board timber 4.Jute fibre Jute-fibre-polymer Timber, metal10 (Jute mills)bonded panel; door and window 5.Cotton waste Cotton-lint-cement Gypsum, timber25 (Textile mills)bonded board
Resource and Energy Saving through Use of Natural Fibres and Agro-Wastes in Building Materials S.Waste and Commercial productTraditional resourceEnergy N.sourceusing natural fibre fully or partly saved % & agro-waste 6.Bagasse Bagasse-polymer- Timber fibres 30 (Sugar mills)bonded boards(in insulation board) 7.Corn cobs Corn cobs-cement Timber, polymer40 (Corn mill)bonded boards 8.Sisal fibre Sisal fibre-polymer/ Asbestos fibre, 20-15 (Sisal plant)cement bonded Timber roofing sheet, door, window 9.Rice straw Compressed and Timber, Polymer40 &Wheat straw paper covered (Farms)board 10 Banana fibre Banana fibre + Timber, Traditional 25 (Banana plant)cotton pulp/paper Timber, Traditional pulp and polymer light weight mineral insulation boardsviz. vermiculite or mica
Environment-friendly, Energy-efficient Technologies Are we ready to use? Fly Ash Hollow BlocksInterlocking Fly Ash Blocks Fly Ash BricksDifferent Walling Options Walling
Environment-friendly, Energy-efficient Technologies Are we ready to use? RCC Planks & JoistsMicro Concrete Roofing Tiles Ferrocement Roofing ChannelsBamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets Roofing
Environment-friendly, Energy-efficient Technologies Are we ready to use? Ferrocement Beams Concrete door/window FramesConcrete Pavers Others
Environment-friendly, Energy-efficient Technologies Are we ready to use? Building Materials from Agro-wastes Jute Polymer sections Wood substitute Doors Rubberwood sections Building Materials from Industrial wastes
Environment-friendly, Energy-efficient Technologies Are we ready to use? Bamboo Mat Roofing Sheet Coir Polymer Doors Bamboo based Doors
Houses using Cost effective Technologies How to reach the masses?
Houses using Cost effective Technologies How to reach the masses?
“Affordable Housing for All” through innovative technologies