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Importance of S&T in Providing Shelter

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Presentation on theme: "Importance of S&T in Providing Shelter"— Presentation transcript:

1 Importance of S&T in Providing Shelter
M W Leelaratne International Seminar on S&T Policy Research and Statistical Indicators 08 September 2006 Colombo NERDC

2 Shelter a structure or building that provides cover
from weather or protection against danger Each family shall have its own shelter NERDC

3 Presentation outline The Status Summary Challenges
Price escalation of resources Meeting the challenges Technological change through innovation Governance Future activities NERDC

4 Status Summary 2001 Census Shortage of housing > 200,000
Another 1,000,00 or more sub-standard units needed improvement Tsunami of December 2004 >70,000 units completely destroyed >30,000 partially damaged Annual demand for new houses ~ 100,000 Source: Central Bank, 2005 NERDC

5 Challenges imposed on meeting the demand
Cultural values Scarcity of resources & high cost Financing Traditions Social acceptance Preferences Shortage of funds High interest rates Rigid procedures Land Raw materials Skilled labour Governance Affordability Need for new vision & technology Wastage of resources Provision of utilities Disasters Over design Lack of flexibility Lack of awareness Time consuming techniques Custom made Water Energy Sanitation Standardised units Quick construction Local resources NERDC

6 Source: Construction Statistics, ICTAD

7 Source: Construction Statistics, ICTAD

8 Meeting Challenges Thro’ innovative technology
Technological shift achieved thro’ Introduction of pre-cast standardised building components to house construction Minimising in-situ construction Minimising usage of sand & timber Introduction of new and cheaper raw materials Size reduction of components by new and better structural designs Minimising the use of indirect materials Minimizing skill labour requirement by newer construction methods Reduction of wastage by centralised mass manufacturing of building components

9 New areas needing attention
Soil investigations in Tsunami affected land Provision of shelter in disaster situations Newer structural designs & construction techniques for withstanding disasters Newer financing mechanisms for low income groups

10 Good Governance in providing shelter
Organisational Framework Ministry of Housing and Construction National Housing Development Authority – Main facilitator for fulfilling nations housing needs (low income groups) Review Planning Ownership Motivation Management Infrastructure Other institutions directly involved in the provision of shelter Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Plantation Human Development Trust Private property developers – high end customers Individual house builders NERDC

11 Good Governance in providing shelter -contd
Housing Development regulatory bodies Urban Development Authority - Issue permits for urban housing projects National Physical Planning Department - Integration of social, physical & env. Issues - housing designs to suit env. - new township development Central Environmental Authority - Env. Protection license (EPL) - EIA Coast Conservation Department - regulates developments in the coastal zone Land Reclamation and Development Corporation - reclaim land earmarked for development Institutions Providing Utility Services Ceylon Electricity Board National Water Supply and Drainage Board NERDC

12 Future activities Incorporate new technology into national standards
Include new technology in the specifications of government buildings Expedite training of manpower Train consultants – regional level Induction programmes to local government officials NERDC

13 Thank You NERDC

14 Technological change thro’ Innovation - R&D Proposed New Technology
Old Technology Proposed New Technology Advantages Rubble foundation In-situ concrete column foundation In-situ columns Brick/Cement-sand block wall Plinth beam foundation for walls Pre-cast concrete pocket foundation Pre-stressed/cast columns Slip-form wall Cement stabilised soil block Less Excavations Less material Quick construction Less skilled labour Mass production Standardised components No form work New cheaper materials No sand Re-usable form work No plastering Material widely available Less transport cost NERDC

15 Technological change thro’ innovation-R&D- contd.
Old Technology Proposed New Technology Advantages In-situ slab Timber door/window frames Roof with timber frame 2” thk Composite slab with pre-stressed beams Pre-cast concrete door/window frames Roof with pre-stressed/cast concrete framework Less material Less/No form work Fast construction Mass production – beams Standardised components Alternate cheap material Mass production Less skilled labour More durable No lintel reqd. above Less skill labour NERDC

16 Dissemination of the New Technology-contd.
NERDC buildings to use this technology Special materials to be supplied by NERDC, until industry takes over (imported items) NERDC to undertake construction of buildings with potential entrepreneurs as sub-contractors for a specified period of time Policy Govt. buildings of different categories e.g. Schools, commercial, hostels, offices, etc. Houses, both housing projects and individual A few NERDC buildings Joint operation between NERDC and prospective entrepreneurs (Licensees) First few pre-stressed/pre-cast concrete yards Pilot Projects

17 Dissemination of the New Technology - contd.
Transferred the building construction technology to nearly 400 potential entrepreneurs. Established 20 pre-stressed yards to manufacture concrete building components Established nearly 100 entrepreneurs to Technology transfer Has conducted 41 training programmes on cost-effective housing technology and over 1500 participated during the last 15 yrs Participated in 34 exhibitions between 2002 and 2005 Conducted 31 awareness programmes between 2002 and 2005 Produced brochures containing details and type plans of model houses Training & Awareness

18 Dissemination of the New Technology – contd.
Imported HTS wires in bulk and distributed to the manufactures of pre-stressed concrete components. Until mid 2004 only. Pilot project are undertaken to train and to give confidence to prospective entrepreneurs Regular programmes are held for the benefit of licensees to impart technological development Support services Monitored the progress of licensees so as to ensure quality of work and to obtain feed back information for future developments Licenses are required to be renewed yearly in order to ensure continuity and progress Licensees are summoned on regular basis to discuss problems and find solutions for them. Licensees are trained for improving their entrepreneurship and business acumen Monitoring & feed back

19 Provision of utilities
Meeting Challenges Thro’ innovative technology Challenge Innovative Solutions Scarcity of materials & high cost Alternative materials Optimal designs Local architechture Reduce wastage Minimise indirect materials New/Fast construction methods Minimize skill labour Standardised building components Minimize in-situ construction New financing instruments Training manpower on new technology Soil investigations in Tsunami affected land Cultural values Provision of utilities Financing Time consuming techniques Wastage of resources NERDC

20 Achievements Buildings having floor area of 60,000 m² has been
constructed in the last decade using the new technology. Value of work nearning Rs. 1 billion Pre-cast building components worth Rs. 80 million has been made using this technology Currently, on average, pre-cast building components required for 25 houses are made per day Over 400 new licensees have been established on this new technology Nearly 100 pre-cast yards for manufacturing building components have been established nearly 20 pre-stressed yards for manufacturing pre-stressed building components have been established Over 5,000 new employment opportunities have been created

21 Achievements – contd. Over all sand savings from 40% - 70% Over all resource saving up to 40% Over all cost savings up to 40%



24 Traditional Random Rubble Foundation

25 Plinth Beam foundation

26 Plinth Beam Foundations
Column footings connected by plinth beam at ground level, thin plinth wall and DPC


28 6”x6” Pre-stress and Pre-cast columns

29 Concrete Doors and Windows

30 Concrete door and window frames

31 Doors and Windows Cost of door/ window frames are reduced by using precast concrete frames Cost only about 70% of timer frames Durable Eliminates lintel

32 Cost-effective Walls Slip form wall made of 1:12 cement and
quarry-dust/ sand mix with 2% of coir fibers. The steel shutter is used For slip form wall construction. Some types of soil can also be used instead of quarry dust.

33 Slip form wall construction


35 House being constructed using CEMENT – SOIL block

36 New Floor slabs Type 1 - Steel frame or timber frames are hang from
PSC beams Type 2 – 20MM Thick ferrocement panels are placed On psc beams as permanent shutter

37 Conventional slab

38 New slab being constructed

39 Roof Asbestos roof on precast concrete purlins.
Tile roof on precast concrete rafters and reapers. Precast concrete trusses

40 Concrete framework for a tile roof

41 Pilot Project P Constructed in 2001

42 Pilot Project Constructed in 1997

43 Pilot Project Constructed in 1996

44 Pilot Project Constructed in 2001

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