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Green HUD-Code & Modular Manufactured Housing: What Does It Mean? Michael Lubliner, Washington State University Energy Program 2009 I’m HOME RETREAT Thursday.

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Presentation on theme: "Green HUD-Code & Modular Manufactured Housing: What Does It Mean? Michael Lubliner, Washington State University Energy Program 2009 I’m HOME RETREAT Thursday."— Presentation transcript:

1 Green HUD-Code & Modular Manufactured Housing: What Does It Mean? Michael Lubliner, Washington State University Energy Program 2009 I’m HOME RETREAT Thursday – September 10, 2009 Development “Breakout” Sessions 3:15-4:15 PM, Seattle, WA

2 Background HUD-code manufactured housing represents a significant portion of new homes in the U.S. – over 95,000 homes in 2007. Each HUD code manufactured home is required to include both a heat loss certificate, and comfort cooling certificate, allowing for proper sizing of HVAC equipment. These certificates could be updated to provide more useful information to potential homebuyers, and could be linked to the HERS rating process. Challenges to this approach include the need to coordinate both in-plant and on-site inspections.

3 HUD Standards Manufactured Housing Construction Safety Standards (MHCSS) is the “preemptive code” Manufactured Housing Consensus Committee (MHCC) Energy Efficiency U o (btuh/f/ft 2 envelope) No NFRC window U-factors required In-plant duct testing required (in process) Requires heating/cooling certificate in permanently affixed in all homes

4 MHCSS Includes: structural, plumbing, electrical, mechanical Energy Efficiency (U o ) same since 1994 USDOE conducted LCCA on IECC+ Proposals to improve EE (2007) Proposals to improve IAQ (2007) Proposals to improve durability (2007) Re-invent old consumer label & heating/cooling certificate (today’s focus)

5 USDOE Building America –Systems Engineering - “Low-Hanging Fruit” –HVAC and Envelope Interact –Improve Envelope & HVAC Costs Less –Whole House Energy Use Reduced (30-60%) –IAQ Improved (Green, Healthy, Sustainable) –Improved Durability –Whole House Savings 30-60% goals over 5 years Next step Eco-rated Energy Star HVAC R 6.5 (1”) foam wall sheathing Solar ready

6 NEEM NW Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing – RCDP/MAP Cents –Natural Choice –Energy Star –Eco-rated –Building America future goals

7 NEEM Utilities Incentives investment better than: –Building new power plants –Weatherizing later at greater cost & less savings –Pay utility bills of low-income sector 3,720 Energy Star PNW HUD-code homes or 64% of PNW total HUD-code homes built in 2007 6,072 Energy Star USA HUD-code homes or 6% of USA total HUD-code homes built in 2007

8 NEEM Label Identifies Value in the Marketplace Single wide$1700. Double wide$2200. Triple wide$2500. See section 3, page 13 for details

9 NEEM NEEM vs. Site Built Energy Codes

10 NEEM Web Based Certification and Tracking System - ODOE

11 R33 FG Batt Floor Insulation

12 R33 Blown Floor Insulation

13 In-floor Duct System

14 Plant and Site Duct Leakage Testing

15 Focus on Performance Testing/Tools

16 Group 2006-07 Sample2000-011997-98 1992-93 (MAP) n* ACH 50 Average Std. Dev. ACH 50 Average All743.870.984.164.765.50 Double Wide603.800.854.304.905.50 Triple Wide144.011.053.844.404.92 NEEM Blower Door – Random Surveys

17 NEEM Duct Blaster – Random Surveys Group 2006-072000-011997-981992-93 nMedianMean All*727795209231157 Double Wide596485199240155 Triple Wide11149151265210169

18 WSU Energy House USDOE Building America Research The nation’s most energy efficient HUD-code home in 1996. This uses 12,000 kWh/year (all electric) Located near Olympia, Washington, in a marine climate (it’s my home!).

19 WSU Energy House – Moisture “Issues” No ventilation instructions Range vented to attic Bath fan jack not caulked Belly insulation soaking wet Rotten window trim Rotten trim at entry deck

20 ZEMH – Cold Climate 60% Benchmark

21 Zero Energy Manufactured Home Goals: Build nation’s most energy efficient HUD-code home –Demonstrate and promote energy saving technologies (2004-06) –Monitor and evaluate energy performance (completed 07)

22 Fort Lewis Modular Homes: Discovery Village = 474 Energy Star Homes Blower Door testing: (2005-07) –Reduced envelope leakage from 1600 to 900 cfm @ 50PA Duct Blaster testing: (2005-07) –Reduced duct leakage to outside from 288 cfm @ 25PA to 39 w/mastic Furnace upgrade: (2007) –92% AFUE to 96% AFUE w/ECM motor DHW upgrade: (2009) –62% EF to 84% EF tankless

23 NIST Manufactured Home

24 Air Leakage Control “Build Tight Ventilate Right” Envelope Details and Lost Opportunities

25 Storm Windows & Lost Opportunities

26 Alliance to Save Energy 2007 Senate Testimony “One in 12 new homes in the United States is a manufactured housing unit (147 million in 2005). To qualify for a federally insured mortgage, a new HUD code home should be required to meet or exceed the efficiency levels of IECC. This will assure that federal taxpayer funds are not used to underwrite inefficient new homes with higher utility bills.”

27 MHI Modern Homes March/April 2007 “Although the high efficiency of Energy Star Homes improves comfort, lowers monthly energy bills and total home ownership and results in lower carbon emissions that are good for the environment, it has been slow to gain wide spread market acceptance in the factor built housing industry. Higher first cost remains the single greatest market barrier.”

28 2008 Energy Bill Manufactured Housing The energy conservation standards established under this section may take into consideration the design and factory construction techniques of manufactured homes and be based on the climate zones established by the HUD. The energy conservation standards established shall be updated not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of this Act; and 1 year after any revision to the International Energy Conservation Code (ICC).

29 Current HUD Climate Zones

30 HUD-Code 2007 Placements Alaska Hawai’i

31 IECC Prescriptive Paths

32 Annual Energy Costs - Houston

33 Annual Energy Costs - Raleigh

34 Annual Energy Costs - Chicago

35 Annual Energy Costs – National Average

36 Consumer Cost Comparison HUD 1994 to IECC 2006 ZoneFloor RoofWallsGlass Total 111-1330-3011-131-2A $89 $0$70$547 $706 211-1930-3811-131stm-2V $495 $150$70$275 $990 322-2530-3811-191stm-ES $135$150 $510$455 $1250 PNNL mfg cost data x 1.85 mfg x 1.35 dealer mark-up Nominal R-value of floor, ceiling & wall, U=window

37 Consumer Monthly Mortgage Increase HUD 1994 to IECC 2006 ZoneTotal Cost20 yr @ 12%30 yr @ 7% 1$706$7.77/mo.$4.70/mo. 2$990$10.90/mo.$6.59/mo. 3 $1250$13.76/mo.$8.32/mo. Assumes: 1500 ft 2 two section home @12% glass

38 Consumer Monthly Energy Savings HUD 1994 to IECC - ASHRAE 2007 Zone Electric Nat. Gas PropaneHP 1$10.42$7.67 $11.92$8.08 2$15.17 $8.83 $13.72$8.92 3$28.67$16.83 $26.16$16.00 Assumes: $0.09-0.10/kWh, $1.10/therm NG, $1.90/gallon

39 Conclusions Significant improvements are achievable at minimal or no incremental monthly cost to the homebuyer. Improvements are cost effective if utility saving is converted to increased mortgage purchase power & increased resale value is recognized, OR using LCCA. Short term improvements: envelope & duct air leakage, HVAC, lighting, appliances, windows/doors, ASHRAE 62.2, formaldehyde, CO Alarms, drainage, flashing, house wrap. Improvements result in greater occupant comfort and control of the indoor environment (drafts, moisture, mold, IAQ pollution etc.).

40 Coordinated Action Needed for Environmental & Economic Security Thanks for your support! Michael Lubliner Office: 360-956-2082 Cell: 360-951-1569

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