Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

METHODS OF TEACHING. OBJECTIVES: 1. to uncover teaching strategies such as expository and exploratory strategies; 2. to apply different teaching methodologies.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "METHODS OF TEACHING. OBJECTIVES: 1. to uncover teaching strategies such as expository and exploratory strategies; 2. to apply different teaching methodologies."— Presentation transcript:

1 METHODS OF TEACHING

2 OBJECTIVES: 1. to uncover teaching strategies such as expository and exploratory strategies; 2. to apply different teaching methodologies In teaching IT topics. Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

3 Two Types of Teaching Methods Direct Approach Experiential Approach Expository Strategies Deductive Expository Demonstrative Exploratory Strategies Inductive Exploratory Inquiry Laboratory Problem Solving Metacognition Reflective Constructivism Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

4 When to use Expository and Exploratory Strategies Direct Instruction Expository Strategies Content Oriented Factual Information Similar information directly available – no effort to look for it Guided Instruction Exploratory Strategies Experience oriented Developmental / formulation of concept, principles, skills, attitudes, and values Information not available – needs to be discovered yet Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

5 Characteristics of Expository and Exploratory Strategy Expository Strategy Less delivery time Utilizes expositive strategies such as direct teaching, deductive process, teacher controlled method Less student involvement Passive- Active Exploratory Strategy More Delivery time Utilizes discover strategies such as inquiry teaching, inductive process, teacher facilitated method High student involvement Active - interactive Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

6 Two Types of Teaching Methods Direct Approach Experiential Approach Expository Strategies Deductive Expository Demonstrative Exploratory Strategies Inductive Discovery Inquiry Laboratory Problem Solving Metacognition Reflective Constructivism Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

7 Demonstration Method Telling and showing method performed usually by a teacher or a trained student while the rest of the class become observers. Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

8 Process is significant but apparatus needed is limitedSchool lacks facilities to every studentEquipment is too sophisticated, expensive, dangerous Lesson requires skill in investigative procedure or technical know how Demonstration Method Used when: Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

9 How to use:Step 1: Preparation, motivation, clarifying objectiveStep2: Explaining concept, theory, processes, performanceStep3: Demonstration of correct process involved in a laboratory or performanceStep4: Discussion / Practice, feedback on elements of processStep 5: Transfer to the real world Demonstration Method Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

10 Example: Data Communication and Networking In Data Communication and Networking, technology used or being discussed are sometimes expensive or not available in the laboratory, this can be discussed by showing illustrations of the said apparatus. Apparatus can be shown physically or by computer visualization. The teacher can discuss the parts of the Access Point as shown in the figure and other facts pertaining to the figure. Demonstration Method Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

11 Expository or Didactic Method Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

12 A telling method where facts, concepts, principles, and generalizations are stated, presented, defined, interpreted by the teacher, and followed by the application or testing of these concepts, principles, and generalizations in new examples generated by students. Expository or Didactic Method Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

13 Example: Database Management System Using expository method, the teacher can discuss the ER diagram shown. After discussing the diagram, the teacher can show another example of two entities without attributes then let the students supply them. The example below can be given: Expository or Didactic Method STUDENT DEPARTMENT Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

14 When to use? When there is an immediate use of relevant information to make the students understand a part of the lesson. When information is not available and time can be saved by the teacher directly telling it. When an idea or principle can best be learned only by explanationWhen the source material is not accessible to the students. Expository or Didactic Method Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

15 How to use: Steps Expository Teaching of Concepts Expository Teaching Principles and Generalization Step1 Teacher presents concepts and definition Teacher states rules, principles, generalizations Step 2 Teacher presents links concept with related higher concepts Teacher explains concepts within a principle or generalization Step 3 Teacher presents positive and negative examples Teacher explains the effect of positive and negative principles Step 4 Students classify example either positive or negative Students classify examples based on the principles as positive or negative Step 5 Students provide additional examples Expository or Didactic Method Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

16 Example: DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Explaining Metropolitan – Area Network (MANs) can be done using this illustration. It will be easier for them to understand MAN through this instead of letting them imagine the setup. The teacher can discuss how the MAN works. Expository or Didactic Method Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

17 Process of teaching that starts with a rule or general statement that is applied to specific cases / examples. Used when students are asked to test a rule or further develop it, to answer questions or solve problems by referring to laws, principles, and theories. Deductive Teaching Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

18 How to present it: I. Statement of the problem State real life cases, situations, problems II. Statement of a generalization Recall two or more generalizations, rules, definitions, or principles Select one which will be the solution to the problem III. Apply the rule Test the rule to specific cases or problems IV. Further verification of the rule Try the rule using other examples Determine the validity of the inference by consulting accepted authorities. Deductive Teaching Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

19 Example SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Deductive Teaching Roles of Business Analyst  Identify how technology can improve business process  Design new business process  Design the information system  Ensure that the system conforms to Information System Standards Roles of Business Analyst  Identify how technology can improve business process  Design new business process  Design the information system  Ensure that the system conforms to Information System Standards Teacher should explain each items, an example per item will be a great help Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

20 Example SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Deductive Teaching Roles of Business Analyst  Identify how technology can improve business process  Design new business process  Design the information system  Ensure that the system conforms to Information System Standards Roles of Business Analyst  Identify how technology can improve business process  Design new business process  Design the information system  Ensure that the system conforms to Information System Standards Examples of businesses that use technology can be shown or cited like the figure shown. Then Let the students name few examples that they already encountered. Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

21 Example SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Deductive Teaching Roles of Business Analyst  Identify how technology can improve business process  Design new business process  Design the information system  Ensure that the system conforms to Information System Standards Roles of Business Analyst  Identify how technology can improve business process  Design new business process  Design the information system  Ensure that the system conforms to Information System Standards Existing business process can be set as an example, the n let the students thin k of other business process that can be improved in the school or in any other business transaction that they know. dia.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.commonvision.com.au/business-process-review.html&usg=__o8H_EoGhTYVwNdE-zSmSLa6Uo- Y=&h=347&w=600&sz=28&hl=tl&start=18&itbs=1&tbnid=JeUnRA5BV05arM:&tbnh=78&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbusiness% 2Bprocess%26hl%3Dtl%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1 Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

22 Example SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Deductive Teaching Roles of Business Analyst  Identify how technology can improve business process  Design new business process  Design the information system  Ensure that the system conforms to Information System Standards Roles of Business Analyst  Identify how technology can improve business process  Design new business process  Design the information system  Ensure that the system conforms to Information System Standards Steps on how to design an information system can be shown so that students could have an idea how these systems are developed. Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

23 Example SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Deductive Teaching Roles of Business Analyst  Identify how technology can improve business process  Design new business process  Design the information system  Ensure that the system conforms to Information System Standards Roles of Business Analyst  Identify how technology can improve business process  Design new business process  Design the information system  Ensure that the system conforms to Information System Standards IT standards can be discussed by citing books or evaluation standard samples can also be discussed to the students then cite examples so that students can relate to it. handbook-how-to-survive-information-systems-audit-and-assessments_8863.html Direct Approach - Expository Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

24 Two Types of Teaching Methods Direct Approach Experiential Approach Expository Strategies Deductive Expository Demonstrative Exploratory Strategies Inductive Exploratory Inquiry Laboratory Problem Solving Metacognition Reflective Constructivism Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

25 Experiential Methodologies: Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

26 - An exploratory method of logic where one arrives at a fact, principle, truth, or generalization - Studying: Observing, comparing many instances or cases in several instances to discover the common element and form generalization - Formulating: conclusion, a definition, a rule, a principle, or a formula based on knowledge of examples and details. Inductive Teaching Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

27 Example Let the students analyze the figure about the files exchange of the automated election that we had last May 10. It can be a group activity then let them write their observation then let the group with the best answer discuss the flow before the class if there is still time. Inductive Teaching SYSTEMS QUALITY ASSURANCE Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

28 When to use Exploratory Method: when the rule, concept, truth, principle, or generalization is important enough to justify the time devoted to the lesson. when the student has the ability to form and state the rule, principle, truth, or generalization by themselves through comparison and abstraction of instances. Exploratory Method Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

29 How to use Exploratory Method Step 1: Preparation: Set specific cases, instances, and examples to the class Step 2: Comparison and Abstraction: Discover and identify the common element among the specific cases and instances presented Step 3: Generalization: State the common element deduced from the specific instances / examples as concept, a generalization, a rule, a definition, a principle, or a formula. Step 4: Application: use the learned concept, generalization, rule, and principle in new situations Exploratory Method How to present it: Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

30 Example OPERATING SYSTEMS If there is a new existing version of operating system, let the students do their own installation of the said operating system then let them document the process of installation and come up with an installation guide. Exploratory Method Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

31 A method in which thoughts are synthesized to perceive something that the individual has not know before. The learner gets directly involved in learning. Learning is a result of the learners own insight, reflection, and experience. Discovery Teaching Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

32 How to use Discovery Method Step 1: Presenting specific examples, instances for observation, discussionStep 2: Identifying attributes of the common elementsStep 3: Discussing the elements of other examplesStep 4: Noting the common elements among the given examples.Step 5: Stating a main idea based on common elementsStep 6: Checking the main idea against new examples Discovery Teaching Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

33 Example: INTRO TO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING public class findoutputForLoop { public static void main(String[] args) { for(;;) System.out.println("Hello"); } public class findoutputForLoop { public static void main(String[] args) { for(;;) System.out.println("Hello"); } Discovery Teaching Provide around three program samples to the students, let them identify the output, of course its an infinite loop, but let them identify the program logic why it became infinite loop. class ForDemo { public static void main(String[] args) { for(int i=1; i<11; i--) { System.out.println("Count is: " + i); } class ForDemo { public static void main(String[] args) { for(int i=1; i<11; i--) { System.out.println("Count is: " + i); } class WhileDemo { public static void main(String[] args){ int count = 1; while (count < 11) { System.out.println("Count is: " + count); Count--; } class WhileDemo { public static void main(String[] args){ int count = 1; while (count < 11) { System.out.println("Count is: " + count); Count--; } Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

34 Problem solving is any purposeful activity that will remove a recognized difficulty or perplexity in a situation through the process of reasoning. Problem Solving Method Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

35 When to use Problem Solving Method to sharpen the power to think, reason, and create new idea to learn how to act in difficult situations to improve judgment Problem Solving Method Use this when the goal is: Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

36 Example : Fundamentals of Programming class WhileDemo { public static void main(String[] args){ int count = 1; while (count < 11) { System.out.println("Count is: " + count); count++; } Problem Solving Method After discussing the FOR statement in Java, ask the students to review printing of numbers 1 to 2010 in using WHILE statement then let them use the FOR statement to generate numbers 1 to 10. If there were several machine problems given in the WHILE statement, let the students convert it to FOR statement. After discussing the FOR statement in Java, ask the students to review printing of numbers 1 to 2010 in using WHILE statement then let them use the FOR statement to generate numbers 1 to 10. If there were several machine problems given in the WHILE statement, let the students convert it to FOR statement. Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

37 A significant unit of a problematic nature carried on by students in a lifelike manner in a natural setting. It may be a construction, an enjoyment, a problem, or a learning project. Project Method Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

38 When to use Project Method When problems in life situation existWhen learners initiate and impose the tasks on themWhen time and materials are available When there is a decided advantage over other methods in meeting the needs. When training in cooperation, perseverance, open- minded, creativity is needed. Project Method Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

39 Steps in Project Method Purposing – Determining goals and activities cooperatively.Planning: Deciding on the activitiesExecuting : Carrying out activities Evaluating: Judging the finished products / results against the goals Project Method Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

40 Example : SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN After discussing each phase of the Software Development Life Cycle. The students can accomplish tasks per phase and submit documentation of the activities and output that were done during the actual group visit Project Method Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

41 A set of first hand learning activities wherein the individual investigates a problem, conducts experiments, observes processes, or applies theories and principles in a simulated setting. Laboratory Method Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

42 Why use Laboratory Method 1.To cultivate students’ skills in the basic science processes 2.To enhance higher order thinking skills 3.To induct learners to scientific processes Laboratory Method Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

43 Example: INTRODUCTION TO DATA STRUCTURES public class ArrayAverage { public static void main(String[] args) { int[] numbers = new int[]{10,20,15,25,16,60,100}; int sum = 0; for(int i=0; i < numbers.length ; i++) sum = sum + numbers[i]; double average = sum / numbers.length; System.out.println("Average value of array elements is : " + average); } public class ArrayAverage { public static void main(String[] args) { int[] numbers = new int[]{10,20,15,25,16,60,100}; int sum = 0; for(int i=0; i < numbers.length ; i++) sum = sum + numbers[i]; double average = sum / numbers.length; System.out.println("Average value of array elements is : " + average); } Laboratory Method After giving an array example to the students, let them work on a problem like the ones given below: Work on the following problems: An array program that could sort 5 integers in ascending order An array program that could sort 5 integers in descending order An array program that could spell words backward an array program that could count the occurrence of each character. Work on the following problems: An array program that could sort 5 integers in ascending order An array program that could sort 5 integers in descending order An array program that could spell words backward an array program that could count the occurrence of each character. Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

44 Learners are confronted with a puzzling situation and are led to enter into investigative work to solve the problem How? 1.Presentation of a problem / puzzling situation 2.Defining problem 3.Gathering and appraising information 4.Organizing information 5.Drawing conclusions 6.Evaluating Inquiry Teaching Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

45 Example: DISCRETE MATH Using the given Venn Diagram, ask the students to prove the Associative Law of Sets: (AUB )UC = AU(BUC) This can be done by the following steps: 1.Identify the elements per set using the given in the Venn Diagram 2.Apply the operation on sets required to prove the given property. Inquiry Teaching AB d h g f k e a l C b c f j Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

46 An on going process that enables individuals to continually learn from their own experiences by considering alternative interpretations of situations, generating and+ evaluating goals, and examining experiences in the light of alternative goals and hypothesis Reflective Teaching Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

47 Example: SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN In the systems development life cycle, the students can write their actual experience per phase. If you’ve come to notice, students normally copy the definition of the phases per phase but they could actually discuss this the way how they experience things during systems development. Reflective Teaching Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

48 Stages of Reflective Teaching Concrete Experience Observation and Analysis Abstract Reconceptualization Active Experimentation Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

49 A teaching approach where learners are trained to become aware of and exert over their own learning by using metacognitive processes. Metacognitive Teaching Approaches Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

50 How to use Metacognitive Approach Through the use of the following metacognitive processes 1.Planning: deciding what my goals are and what strategies to use to get there 2.Deciding: what further knowledge or resources needed 3.Monitoring progress along the way. 4.Evaluating when I have arrived 5.Terminating when the goal has been met. Metacognitive Teaching Approaches Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

51 Example: THESIS WRITING The students enrolled in thesis class could write their personal plan on writing their thesis using the metacognitive teaching approach format 1.Planning: this could contain the selected focus on the thesis 2.Deciding: this could include the algorithm or technology that will be used for the systems development 3.Monitoring : this should include how the monitoring should be to ensure that the project will be performed as scheduled 4.Evaluating: this should include means to evaluate the progress of the systems development 5.Terminating: this should include the factor to determine when to stop Metacognitive Teaching Approaches Experiential Approach - Exploratory Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero

52 Thank you very much! Mr. Jonathan M. Caballero


Download ppt "METHODS OF TEACHING. OBJECTIVES: 1. to uncover teaching strategies such as expository and exploratory strategies; 2. to apply different teaching methodologies."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google