instructive theory. depend - on students' learning -learning is the direct result of instruction
constructive theory -Forms the basis of the learner-centered approach. -It emphasizes on the active and reflective nature of learning and the learner.
our tasks are to 1 - Discuss and explain fundamental educational principles behind learner-centered learning, deep learning, and experiential model of learning. 2 - Determine and illustrate their applications in the context of medical education. 3 - Identify what is our current educational status and where we ought to be. 4 - Propose changes in the educational environment that are necessary 5 -Implement learner-centered learning, deep learning, and experiential learning
The learner-centered learning model - Reshaped almost all aspects of medical education,,curriculum planning, instructional models, student assessment, application of internet technology, even classroom design are inspired by this concept. - The concept is relevant to all players in medical education—students, teachers, administrators, policy makers, and the publics
Why is learner-centered learning so important? - A response to the explosion of knowledge in medicine. - The medical curriculum has grown tremendously both in depth and content. - Information is fast changing—it is estimated that medical knowledge doubles in every five years. - Demands more analytical ability and problem -solving skills throughout the doctor's professional life.
The learner-centered model - Nurtures and prepares the learners to be independent and self-reliant in their learning, efficient and more responsive to the needs of the fast changing and ever- demanding field of medicine.
Features of Learner-centered Learning 1- Learning is active and self-directed. 2- Active reflection and discovery enhance the learning. 3- Motivation to learn is intrinsic 4- Learning is an individual as well as a social and collaborative. 5- Learning is a shared and joint activity between the teacher and student 6- Learner determines (with support from teachers) own goals, methods of achieving the goals, and assessment process 7- Skills of learning improve the learning
Barriers to implementation - both students and teachers need education and training - Teachers feel hesitate and the concept is unstructured, disorganized, and a threat to control the classroom. - Students feel vulnerable, as they are not trained in the skills of learning. -They need to know how learner-centered learning work
Promoting Learner-Centered Learning at Individual Level -Be less directive, be more facilitative - The process of learning along with content - Encourage peer teaching, small group discussion, case based teaching - Make lecture interactive - Help learners decide on need-driven goals - Teach principles, not esotericism, with wider appeals and applications - Promote self-reflection and self-assessment
Attributes that Promote Deep Learning - Intrinsic motivation - Personal and professional development - Active learning - Group and collaborative work - Self-exploration, discovery, and reflection - Integrated concepts and curriculum - Match between assessment and learning objectives
Barriers to Deep Learning - Extrinsic motivation -Learning and teaching for examination - Passive learning - Learning in isolation - Fragmentation of knowledge
The experiential learning theory is the result of four inter-related activities. 1-Experience 2-Observation and reflection 3-General principles 4-Testing in new situation Experiential Learning
How can we apply Kolb's learning model to our teaching and learning? Two immediate and proximate applications of this model are to improve (a) our own teaching and (b) our students' learning. The experiential model is a powerful tool to reflect on and improve our own teaching.