2 AttitudesAn attitude is an enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive processes with respect to an aspect of our environment.An attitude is a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.Attitudes:are learned; based on experienceare predispositions; exist in the mindcause consistent response; precede and produce behavior
3 Attitudes Attitudes can be used to predict behavior. Behavior can be used to infer the underlying attitudes.Attitudes serve four functions:UtilitarianEgo-defensiveKnowledgeValue-expressiveOne’s attitudes is comprised of three components:AffectiveBehavioralCognitive
4 Attitude Components and Manifestations Initiator Component Component manifestation AttitudeStimuli:Products, situations, retail outlets, sales personnel, advertisements, and other attitude objectsOverall orientation toward objectAffectiveBehavioralCognitiveEmotions or feelings about specific attributes or overall objectBeliefs about specific attributes or overall objectBehavioral intentions with respect to specific attributes or overall objectThe McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998
5 Cognitive ComponentMultiattribute model is a summation of consumers’ beliefs about product performance on different attributes.The model may include the importance weights attached to each attribute.The model may also include the difference between the beliefs about product performance and the consumer’s ideal level of performance on each attribute.
7 Measuring Attitude Components Cognitive Component (Measuring Beliefs about Specific Attributes Using the Semantic Differential Scale)Diet CokeStrong taste —— —— —— —— —— —— —— Mild tasteLow priced —— —— —— —— —— —— —— High pricedCaffeine free —— —— —— —— —— —— —— High in caffeineDistinctive in —— —— —— —— —— —— —— Similar in taste to taste mostThe McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998
8 Measuring Attitude Components Affective Component (Measuring Feelings about Specific Attributes Using Likert Scales)Neither Agree Strongly nor Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Disagree DisagreeI like the taste of Diet —— —— —— —— —— Coke.Diet Coke is overpriced. —— —— —— —— ——Caffeine is bad for your —— —— —— —— —— health.I like Diet Coke. —— —— —— —— ——The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998
9 Measuring Attitude Components Behavioral Component (Measuring Actions or Intended Actions)The last soft drink I consumed was a ___________________.I usually drink________________soft drinks.What is the likelihood you will buy Diet Coke the Definitely will buy the next time you purchase a soft drink? Probably will buy Might buy Probably will not buy Definitely will not buyThe McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998
10 Attitude Change Strategies Change the affective component :classical conditioningaffect towards the admere exposureChange the behavioral componentoperant conditioningChange the cognitive componentchange beliefsshift importanceadd beliefschange ideal
16 Appeal Characteristics Fear appealslevel of fear must not be too highcriticized as unethical.Humorous appealsattentionincreases likingrelate to message or productdoes not distract
17 Appeal Characteristics Comparative adsnew brands and product positioningextent of brand loyaltyfew attributesprint mediaEmotional appealsValue expressive versus Utilitarian AppealsOne-sided versus Two sided messages
18 Tom is considering the purchase of a new car Tom is considering the purchase of a new car. He thinks to himself, “I may not make a huge income, but I can still afford the payments on this luxury car.” Tom’s attitude is serving which function?UtilitarianEgo-defensiveKnowledgeValue-expressiveTime-value
19 Joan is evaluating brands of computers prior to making a purchase decision. When she thinks to herself, “Sun Microsystems have versatile connectivity” Joan is dealing with which component of her attitude toward this product?AffectiveBehavioralCognitiveDepartmentalEgo-Defensive
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