12Information SearchDeliberate attempt to gain knowledge about a purchase decision; goal is to reduce uncertainty.Internal searchRetrieve information from long term memoryExternal searchGather information from external sources, e.g., ads, media, friends, stores
14Evaluation of Alternatives Occurs either separately or in conjunction with information search.We rely on internal processes to help us organize the evaluation process.Consideration (evoked set)Decision rules (heuristics)
16Decision Rules Strategies used by consumers to guide decision making. Some decision rules use product characteristics to guide decisions.CompensatoryNoncompensatorySome decision rules rely on stored information in consumers’ memories to guide decisions.
17Compensatory Decision Rule Select the best overall brandConsumer evaluates brand options in terms of each relevant attribute and computes a weighted or summated score for each brand. The consumer chooses the brand with the highest score.A compensatory model because a positive score on one attribute can outweigh a negative score on another attribute.
18Noncompensatory Decision Rules Conjunctive Decision RuleConsumer sets a minimum standard for each attribute and if a brand fails to pass any standard, it is dropped from consideration.Reduces a large consideration set to a manageable size.Often used in conjunction with another decision rule.
19Noncompensatory Decision Rules Disjunctive Decision RuleConsumer sets a minimum acceptable standard as the cutoff point for each attribute--any brand that exceeds the cutoff point is accepted.Reduces large consideration set to a more manageable number of alternatives.Consumer may settle for the first satisfactory brand as final choice or may use another decision rule.
20Noncompensatory Decision Rules Lexicographic Decision RuleThe consumer ranks the attributes according to importance and then selects the brand that is superior on the most important attribute.If one brand ranks sufficiently high on just one attribute, it will be selected regardless of how it scores on other attributes.
21Affect-Referral Rule Synthesized decision rule Consumers maintain overall evaluations of brands in their long term memories. Brands on not evaluated on individual attributes but on the highest perceived overall rating.
22Frame of ReferenceAnother way in which consumers evaluate information is the frame of reference from which s/he subjectively evaluates messages related to a decision problem.“Percent lean” vs. “Percent fat”“Sale” vs. “Clearance”
24Post-Purchase Evaluation Consumers evaluate purchases during consumption process.Three possible outcomes.Postpurchase cognitive dissonance.Complaining behavior.
25Outcomes Actual product performance matches prepurchase expectations Neutral Feeling
26Outcomes Actual product performance exceeds prepurchase expectations. Positive disconfirmation of expectationsSatisfaction
27Outcomes Actual product performance is below prepurchase expectations. Negative disconfirmation of expectationsDissatisfaction
28A Continuum of Satisfaction DissatisfactionSatisfactionDelighted
29If dissatisfied…. Alternative actions Do nothing Avoid seller/brand in the futureNegative WOM to friendsSeek redress of problem from sellerComplain to outside agency
30Decision to complain... Is based on: Level of dissatisfaction Importance of decision/purchaseCosts/benefits of actionsPersonal characteristicsAttribution of blame
31Managerial Implications Related to Consumer Decision Making Understanding decision making process enables marketers to assist consumers along decision pathway.Offer products that meet needs/wantsAdvertisingMaking information availableMaking product availableFollow-up sales calls, good service