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Seminar Computer Animation Arjan Egges Lecture #2: History of Animation.

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Presentation on theme: "Seminar Computer Animation Arjan Egges Lecture #2: History of Animation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seminar Computer Animation Arjan Egges Lecture #2: History of Animation

2 Introduction Animate = “Give life to” Adding the dimension of time to graphics Animator specifies movement of objects through time and space

3 Two main categories Computer-assisted animation –2D & 2 1/2 D –Inbetweening –Inking, virtual camera, managing data, etc Computer generated animation –Low level techniques Precisely specifying motion –High level techniques Describe general motion behavior

4 Introduction Low-level techniques –Shape interpolation –Helps the animator fill in the details of the motion given enough information –Animator has a fairly specific idea of target motion High-level techniques –Generate a motion given a set of rules or constraints –Object motion is controlled by a model/algorithm –Fairly sophisticated computation, such as physically- based motion

5 Introduction Another way of looking at this: level of abstraction Very low-level: animator colours every pixel individually in every frame Very-high level: tell the computer “make a movie about a dog” Challenge lies in developing tools that allow animators to animate on different levels

6 Perception Eye/brain assembles images and interprets them as continuous movement Persistence of vision: sequence of still images shown at a fast enough rate to induce sensation of continuous imagery Eye retains visual imprint once stimulus is removed –“positive afterimages” Persistence of vision is not persistence of motion

7 Perception Persistence of vision lower bound: –Playback rate of images –Critical flicker frequency Persistence of motion has an upper bound: –Object moves too quickly –Motion blur Two important rates: –Playback/refresh rate –Sampling/update rate

8 The early days Persistence of vision: discovered in the 1800s. –Zoetrope –Flipbook –Thaumatrope

9 The early days End of the 19 th centure introduced moving image by using a projector. –Magic Lantern and shadow puppets –Zoopraxinoscope (zoetrope + projector) –Kinetograph First motion picture viewer

10 The early days Animation movie pioneers –J. Stuart Blackton (smoke effect, 1900) First animated cartoon in 1906 Used a chalkboard for drawing and erasing frames –Emile Cohl (Fantasmogorie, 1908) –Winsor McCay (Little Nemo) Each image redrawn on rice paper and then filmed

11 The early days Major technical developments by John Bray (1910): –compositing multiple layers of drawings into a final image (celluloid) –using grayscale –Drawing background on long sheet of paper for panning Max Fleischer (Betty Boop), Walter Lantz (Woody Woodpecker) Fleischer patented rotoscoping in 1915

12 The early days First animated character: Felix the Cat (Otto Messmer) in early 1920s. Disney came around end 1920s, introducing a number of innovations –Storyboards –Pencil sketches for reviewing motion –Multiplane camera –Using sound & colour

13 Multiplane Camera Move scene layers independently of camera Six directions of movement for each plane

14 Multiplane camera Powerful tool: –More effective zoom Move foreground image to the side –Parallax effect Moving planes at different rates –Adding depth cues Blur the images on more distant planes –Introduce motion blur by fast moving planes

15 The early days Sound was added for the first time in Steamboat Willie (1928) Disney promoted idea that mind of the character was the driving force of the action –Analysis of real-life motion

16 MGM and Warner Brothers, etc.

17 Other Media Animation Computer animation is often compared to stop motion animation –Puppet animation Willis O’Brian (King Kong) Ray Harryhausen (Might joe Yong, Jason and the Argonauts)

18 Other Media Animation Claymation Sand animation Physical object is manipulated, image captured, repeat

19 Production of Animation Preliminary story Story board Detailed story Key Frames Test shot Pencil test Inbetweening Inking Coloring Computer Animation basically follows this pipeline

20 Computer Animation as Animation Lasseter translated traditional principles of animation to computer animation –Lasseter is conventionally trained animator Worked at Disney before going to Pixar Many celebrated animations Knick-knack (oscar-winning)

21 Computer Animation Research In Research labs NYIT Still frame from Gumby animation by Hank Grebe and Dick Lundin, 1984.

22 Computer Animation Research University of Utah –Films on walking and talking figure –Animated hand and animated face (1972) University of Pennsylvania –Human figure animation (Norm Badler) MIRALab, Geneva –Virtual Humans (Daniel & Nadia Thalmann)

23 Pioneering animation movies Pixar Luxo Jr. (1986) –first computer animation to be nominated for an Academy Award Red's Dream (1987) Tin Toy (1988) –first computer animation to win an Academy Award Knick Knack (1989)

24 Early CG in film Future World (1976) Star Wars (1977) Tron (1982, MAGI) –Supposed to look like a computer The Last Starfighter (1984) –Use CG in place of models Willow (1988, ILM) –Morphing video –First digital blue screen matte extraction The Abyss (1989, ILM) Lawnmower man (1992, Xaos, Angel Studios) Hollywood’s view of VR

25 Early CG in film Jurassic Park (1993, ILM) Forrest Gump (1994, Digital Domain) –Insert CG ping pong ball Babe (1995, Rhythm & Hues) –Move mouths of animals & fill in background Toy Story (1995, Pixar & Disney) –First full length fully CG 3D animation

26 Early CG on TV Reboot (1995, Limelight Ltd. BLT Productions) –Similar intention of “inside computer” –First fully 3D Sat. morning cartoon Babylon 5 (1995) –Routinely used CG models as regular features Simpsons (1995 PDI)

27 More recent movies with CG Final fantasy (2001) –Fully 3D simulated environment Lord of the Rings (2001- 2003) –One of the first movies using crowds (Massive) Polar express (2004) –Fully motion-capture based The Shrek movies (2001, 2004, 2007) Avatar (2009)

28 Resources Milestones of the animation industry in the 20th Century – milestones6.php3 milestones6.php3 Brief History of NYIT Computer Graphics Lab – Rick Parent – – h/animation/rick_parent/Intr.html h/animation/rick_parent/Intr.html

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