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Describing Where: spatial referencing systems Many common applications use only a simple reference grid Many common applications use only a simple reference grid

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Rectangular referencing systems Are not tied to spatial locations Are not tied to spatial locations Often CAD drawings or scanned images suffer from this sort of referencing system Often CAD drawings or scanned images suffer from this sort of referencing system There must be a way to tie the grid to specific places on earth There must be a way to tie the grid to specific places on earth

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Geographic coordinates (Latitude and Longitude). Simple conversion of angles at the earth’s center gives a basic equirectangular projection Common and simple*

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the Babylonian system is based on the number 60. Latitude and Longitude are based on a a "sexagesimal" system. A circle has 360 degrees, a degree has 60 min. and each minute is divided into 60 seconds. This nomenclature is known as DMS (degrees, minutes, seconds) the Babylonian system is based on the number 60. Latitude and Longitude are based on a a "sexagesimal" system. A circle has 360 degrees, a degree has 60 min. and each minute is divided into 60 seconds. This nomenclature is known as DMS (degrees, minutes, seconds) Perhaps a better system is to convert the minutes/seconds to a decimal part of a degree this is known as DD (decimal degrees). Perhaps a better system is to convert the minutes/seconds to a decimal part of a degree this is known as DD (decimal degrees). e.g ’ 00” = 120.5

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A complicating factor: the Earth is not really ‘round’. It is in fact an ‘oblate spheroid’*.

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Actually, the earth could be better pictured as a ‘lumpy potatoe’ (my tribute to Dan Quayle) spinning through space. The Mathematical sphere and ellipsoid (sphereoid) are still open to “interpretation”

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n outstanding site that discusses sphereoid and datum The picture is yet a little MORE complex! Not only do we have a lumpy blob of a planet, and we have to assume some mathematical construct to calculate locations We have to define WHERE the sphereoid is centered!

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Datum The easiest to use are datum that use the center of the earth (WGS80,NAD84,GRS80) The easiest to use are datum that use the center of the earth (WGS80,NAD84,GRS80) Older data in the US often use NAD27 (North American Datum 1927). The datum for this projection is the geographic center of the conterminous US (Meads Ranch KS) Older data in the US often use NAD27 (North American Datum 1927). The datum for this projection is the geographic center of the conterminous US (Meads Ranch KS) The offset between the same projection using a different datum can be significant The offset between the same projection using a different datum can be significant If you are aware of the issue, it is usually fairly easy to find the tools to make the conversion If you are aware of the issue, it is usually fairly easy to find the tools to make the conversion

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While the Earth is ‘roundish’, maps/display screens are FLAT Map Projections are different ways that a curved surface can be displayed FLAT.

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Continents drawn on oranges and made into a ‘flat’ maps... Ripping, tearing and distortion

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The Goode interrupted Homolosine equal-area projection The Cahill Butterfly projection (equal-area variant) The Schjerning equal-area projection for the oceans Several projections do ‘interrupt’ the earth

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Distortion: It is impossible to project a curved surface to a flat display without causing distortion of the features. An almost unlimited number of projections have been developed for the purposes of individual users. ojections/projections.html /gcraft/notes/mapproj/mapproj.html

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A projection can intersect the surface in many different places. There is no distortion at the points of intersection… distortion increases as the distance from the intersecting points increases.

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Handling Projections... There are an almost unlimited number of ways that spatial data can be projected. There are an almost unlimited number of ways that spatial data can be projected. The most common in the US are probably: The most common in the US are probably: Lat-long (geographic) Lat-long (geographic) UTM (universal transverse mercator) UTM (universal transverse mercator) “State-Plane” with all that entails “State-Plane” with all that entails “Albers” or “Lambert” conic projections “Albers” or “Lambert” conic projections

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You must be aware that there are lots of possibilities You must know the terms. Be prepared, data almost NEVER overlays the first time. Never hesitate to look for help…

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The direction of projection can be changed according to the needs of the person using the data

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The UTM Grid (Universal Transverse Mercator) Projection Each Cell is 6 degrees of longitude and 8 degrees of latitude.

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UTM zones for the Conterminous US: Note that most states are split between 2 or 3 zones… it is critical to know which zone your data are in. Nevada is one of the few states where virtually all state data are found in UTM coordinates.

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UTM coordinates “read right, up” Report: Zone (e.g. 16 for AL) “eastings” (X) f then “northings”(Y)

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Advantages of UTM Values are always positive (a ‘false easting of 500,000 meters) Values are always positive (a ‘false easting of 500,000 meters) Equator 0 (all positive to the north) Equator 0 (all positive to the north) South zone south pole is 0 all values are positive South zone south pole is 0 all values are positive Global coverage Global coverage High accuracy (meter by meter) High accuracy (meter by meter) _Exercise/topomaps/utm.htm _Exercise/topomaps/utm.htm _Exercise/topomaps/utm.htm _Exercise/topomaps/utm.htm

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The “State Plane” Coordinate System Each state has a unique set of coordinates Each state has a unique set of coordinates ‘wide’ states use a Lambert projection ‘wide’ states use a Lambert projection ‘tall’ states use UTM projection ‘tall’ states use UTM projection Larger states have multiple zones Larger states have multiple zones The goal is to create minimal distortion between the curved surface and flat display and to have simple, positive coordinates The goal is to create minimal distortion between the curved surface and flat display and to have simple, positive coordinates

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Wisconsin has 3 zones and uses a Lambert conic projection. Oregon has 2 zones and also uses the Lambert projection. Illinois uses a UTM projection

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Lambert conic conformal projection and 5 zones

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Public Land Survey System The idea of Thomas Jefferson The idea of Thomas Jefferson Set up in 1785 for the ‘western’ US Set up in 1785 for the ‘western’ US Creates ‘square’ landuse patterns. Creates ‘square’ landuse patterns. Commonly used in parcel descriptions Commonly used in parcel descriptions

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SPSS baselines for the US… note the patterns of history and politics evident in the locations of PLSS.

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Land use patterns in Ohio from ‘uncontrolled’ survey. Land use patterns in Ohio from Public Land Survey System (PLSS) survey.

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Tennessee Alabama Roads from US Census TIGER files

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N-S divisions are ‘TOWNSHIPs’ E-W divisions are ‘RANGE’ Each section is 1 mile square (640 Acres) The various ‘homestead’ acts gave rights of claim to a ¼ section…160 acres. 1 mile =.6km 1hectare = 2.2 acres

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Projection...Coordinate System Each projection has its own coordinate system and equations Each projection has its own coordinate system and equations Embedded in the software are the equations for each projection/datum Embedded in the software are the equations for each projection/datum Projecting data is as simple as picking the correct sets of equations and ‘mashing the button’ Projecting data is as simple as picking the correct sets of equations and ‘mashing the button’

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Equations Embedded in the software Datam transformation

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ArcGIS and Projections... Projection information is defined in the data frame. Projection information is defined in the data frame. The first data layer in the data frame defines the project for subsequent layers... If the projection is defined for a data layer, Arc Map projects ‘on the fly’ and all layers overlay automatically The first data layer in the data frame defines the project for subsequent layers... If the projection is defined for a data layer, Arc Map projects ‘on the fly’ and all layers overlay automatically METADATA!! METADATA!! These techniques do not work with poorly defined or undefined data These techniques do not work with poorly defined or undefined data

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‘On the Fly’ projection Takes time and computing power to redraw the map each time as every layer has to be projected to the data frame properties Takes time and computing power to redraw the map each time as every layer has to be projected to the data frame properties DOES NOT CHANGE THE BASE DATA DOES NOT CHANGE THE BASE DATA Visual change only... Visual change only... If the data are not accurately defined If the data are not accurately defined ‘on the fly’ projection will simply produce additional errors! In Arcview..changing “view properties”

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Dealing with projections.... By far the best procedure is to use a standardized projection for all data in a project By far the best procedure is to use a standardized projection for all data in a project This is not often a choice... Agencies choose the standard projection This is not often a choice... Agencies choose the standard projection Raster data (images) are much more complex to project, often it is best to match projection of vector data to the available raster data Raster data (images) are much more complex to project, often it is best to match projection of vector data to the available raster data Pick the projection for most of the data Pick the projection for most of the data

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COORDINATE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION THE Projection defined for Oregon GIS Data

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The ArcGIS toolbox Define Projection allows you to specify the projection... Make sure you are correct! Project and Transform actually project the data (change the coordinates of the data) YOU MUST KNOW: What is the projection of the data now AND What the projection is that you wish to convert the data to

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In Arcview.... The ‘projection wizard’ is standard from V3.2 on The ‘projection wizard’ is standard from V3.2 on Available in the extensions pull down Available in the extensions pull down SLOW......and has strange assumptions SLOW......and has strange assumptions

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Arcview Projection wizard difficult to customize projection parameters, has a huge list of projections that are extremely uncommon... Standard projections are difficult to find difficult to customize projection parameters, has a huge list of projections that are extremely uncommon... Standard projections are difficult to find

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Explore the list... Note that a LOT of projections are available... But they are not exactly what one might call ‘common’... Aside from some limitations it works well and it was a good first step towards what ArcGIS now uses

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Projector! In some ways a much superior tool for projecting data... Much like the projection GUI in ArcToolbox In some ways a much superior tool for projecting data... Much like the projection GUI in ArcToolbox Comes with the SAMPLE extensions in Arcview... Its there, but ESRI does not tell you its there! Comes with the SAMPLE extensions in Arcview... Its there, but ESRI does not tell you its there! HOW to deal with extensions in Arcview 3.X HOW to deal with extensions in Arcview 3.X

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Lifting the hood..... Arcview extensions live in the ext32 directory Arcview extensions live in the ext32 directory

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All extensions are *.avx

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To make an extension active... Simply copy the *.avx to the /ext32 directory Simply copy the *.avx to the /ext32 directory Turn on the check box in the extension menu and you are ready to rock Turn on the check box in the extension menu and you are ready to rock Demo... Projector! Demo... Projector!

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In the sample extensions folder find the projector.avx file Copy this file to the ext32 directory Activate the PROJECTOR! extension

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Added to the standard GUI is a new button for the Projector! extension

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Not only for sample extensions... As of last check 2057 free scripts and extensions have been written for Arcview As of last check 2057 free scripts and extensions have been written for Arcview If you need to do it... Chances are very good that somebody has written an extension to perform the task you need done! If you need to do it... Chances are very good that somebody has written an extension to perform the task you need done! Being able to add extensions makes Arcview an incredibly powerful piece of software! Being able to add extensions makes Arcview an incredibly powerful piece of software!

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If nothing else.... Install the Projector! Extension from the samples directory Install the Projector! Extension from the samples directory Download and install Xtools.avx Download and install Xtools.avx The top download The top download An excellent set of tools! An excellent set of tools!

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Using Projector! Let us use the example of converting map data in UTM zone 16 to Alabama State Plane West Let us use the example of converting map data in UTM zone 16 to Alabama State Plane West After setting the view properties to meters (the units for UTM) launch the projector extension, the first task is to define the input projection After setting the view properties to meters (the units for UTM) launch the projector extension, the first task is to define the input projection In this case UTM 16 In this case UTM 16

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NAD 83 is the datum Note that zone 16 has predefined parameters If you need to change one or more of these parameters use the ‘custom option

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The output units must be specified... State plane are in feet

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