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Working with Map Projections GLY 560: GIS and Remote Sensing for Earth Scientists Class Home Page:

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Map Projection The transformation from the geographic grid to a plane coordinate system is referred to as map projection. Transformation from one plane coordinate system to another is referred to as re-projection.

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Ellipsoid (Global) Coordinate Systems Global coordinates based upon “spherical” coordinates modified to account for imperfect shape of earth.

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Latitude-Longitude System oThe most commonly used coordinate system today is the latitude, longitude, and height system. oThe Prime Meridian and the Equator are the reference planes used to define latitude and longitude.

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Equator and Prime Meridian Meridian = (N-S Longitude); Parallel = (E-W Latitude)

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Latitude-Longitude Systems Degree-Minute-Second (DMS) 1 deg = 60 min 1 min = 60 sec Decimal Degrees (DD) 45 5230 =

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Plane Coordinate Systems René Descartes ( ) introduced systems of coordinates based on orthogonal (right angle) coordinates. These two and three-dimensional systems used in analytic geometry are often referred to as Cartesian systems. Similar systems based on angles from baselines are often referred to as polar systems.

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Plane Coordinate Systems 2-D Systems (1 plane) 3-D Systems (2 orthogonal planes)

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Projection Classes Conformal: preserves local shape Equivalent: preserves area Equidistant: preserves length Azimuthal: preserves directions Map can have more that one property, but conformal and equivalent are mutually exclusive

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Projections Affect Maps The greater the map area, the greater the impact of projection

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Conic Projection

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Cylindrical Projection

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Azimuthal Projection

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Common Map Projections Choice of map projection depends upon: Attribute to be preserved Scale to be represented Aspect of the map

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Transverse Mercator Projection Secant cylindrical projection Straight meridians and parallels intersect at right angles. Scale is true at the equator or at two standard parallels equidistant from the equator. Often used for marine navigation because all straight lines on the map are lines of constant azimuth. Requires: Standard Parallels Central Meridian Latitude of Origin False Easting and Northing

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Lambert Conformal Conic Secant conic projection Area, and shape are distorted away from standard parallels. Directions true in limited areas. Used for maps of North America. Requires: Standard Parallels Central Meridian Latitude of Projection Origin False Easting and Northing

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Albers Equal-Area Conic Secant conic projection (similar to Lambert Conformal Conic but preserves area instead of shape) Distorts scale and distance except along standard parallels. Used in large countries with a larger east-west than north-south extent. Requires: Standard Parallels Central Meridian Latitude of Projection Origin False Easting and Northing

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Unprojected Maps Unprojected maps consider longitude and latitude as a simple rectangular coordinate system. Scale, distance, area, and shape are all distorted with the distortion increasing toward the poles.

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Datum To project Earth to a flat plane we must choose an ellipsoid or spheroid to represent the Earth’s surface. Choosing an ellipsoid implies a horizontal datum for the projected map. Hundreds of datums have been used.

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Reference Ellipsoids Reference ellipsoids are usually defined by semi-major (equatorial radius) and flattening (the relationship between equatorial and polar radii).

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Selected Reference Ellipsoids

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Clarke 1866 Datum (NAD27) Land-based ellipsoid running through Meades Ranch Kansas Basis for North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27) still used today.

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS World Geodetic System 1984 Determined from satellite orbit data. Identical to GRS80 Used for North American Datum 1983 (NAD83)

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS NAD27 vs NAD83 GIS Data providers switching from NAD27 to NAD83. NAD83 tied to global positioning system measurements Horizontal shift between NAD27 and NAD m in conterminous US and >200 m in Alaska.

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Coordinate Systems Map projections used for small-scale maps (<1:1,000,000). Plane coordinate systems used for large-scale maps (>1:24,000).

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS US Plane Coordinate Systems Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Universal Polar Stereographic (UPS) State Plane Coordinate (SPC) Public Land Survey System (PLSS)

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Universal Transverse Mercator The National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) (formerly the Defense Mapping Agency) adopted UTM grid for military use. UTM divides earth’s surface between 84 N and 80 S into 60 zones about 360 km wide. Each of 60 zones mapped onto transverse mercator projection. False origin assigned to each UTM zone. In Northern Hemisphere, UTM measured from false origin at equator and 500,000 m West of central meridian.

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS UTM Zones

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS UTM Zones

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS UTM on USGS Maps On 7.5-minute quadrangle maps the UTM grid lines are indicated at intervals of 1,000 meters, by blue ticks in the margins of the map or with full grid lines.

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS State Plane System In United States, State Plane System developed in the 1930s and was based on NAD27. While the NAD-27 State Plane System has been superseded by the NAD-83 System, maps in NAD-27 coordinates (in feet) are still in use. Most USGS 7.5 Minute Quadrangles use several coordinate system grids including latitude and longitude, UTM kilometer tic marks, and State Plane coordinates.

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Public Land Survey System Public Land Rectangular Surveys have been used since the 1790s to identify public lands in the United States. Appears on large-scale USGS topographic maps Abbreviations used for Township (T or Tps), Ranges (R or Rs), Sections(sec or secs), and directions (N, E, S, W, NE, etc.).

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5/2/2015GLY560: GIS and RS Public Land Survey System Each state has a principle meridian running N-S, and a baseline running E-W. When measuring in a N-S direction, each square is called a township. When measuring in an E-W direction, each of these squares is called a range.

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