Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Questioned Documents Unit. Do Now : What kind of documents will investigators observe in order to connect suspects to a crime? Objectives: Determine the.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Questioned Documents Unit. Do Now : What kind of documents will investigators observe in order to connect suspects to a crime? Objectives: Determine the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Questioned Documents Unit

2 Do Now : What kind of documents will investigators observe in order to connect suspects to a crime? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

3 Questioned Documents: Any document about which some issue has been raised or that is the subject of an investigation. Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

4 Examples of Questioned Documents Checks Licenses and Certificates Passports (Counterfeit) Money Receipts Lottery tickets Historical documents Ransom and suicide notes Forgeries of Art 4 Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

5 Document Examiners: Mostly examine handwriting to originate its source or its authenticity Will also examine typed writings, computer printings, photocopies, inks, papers, and forgeries, and decode altered and charred documents May need to use microscopes, photographs, chromatography, and other lab examinations on the questioned documents Many work in federal, local, and state crime labs, but they may also work in private practices Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

6 Handwriting: Two individuals cannot have exactly identical handwriting Since handwriting is associated with mechanical, physical, and mental functions, it is almost impossible to reproduce exactly Handwriting can be almost as individual as a person’s fingerprint Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

7 A positive comparison must be based on an ample number of common characteristics between known and questioned writings Collecting a lot of exemplars (known writings) is critical in order to make a comparison Exemplars should contain some of the same words or combinations of letters that are present in the questioned document(s) Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

8 Two writings came from one person if: their similarities are unique and no unexplainable difference(s) are found 1. Examine the questionable document for detectable traits and record them 2. Obtain a known sample of the suspect’s writing (an exemplar ) 3. Compare and draw conclusions about the authorship of the questionable document Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

9 1. Line quality : Are the lines smooth, free- flowing? Or shaky and wavering? 2. Spacing: Are the letters and words equally spaced or crowded? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars 12 Handwriting Characteristics (Exemplars)

10 3) Size consistency: Examine the relative height, width and size of letters. Is it consistent? 4) Continuous: Is the writing continuous or does the writer lift the pen? Forgeries may have lifts or separations in unusual places, such as within a letter Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

11 5) Connecting letters: Compare the strokes between upper and lower case letters. Are they connected? 6) Letters complete: Look at beginning and ending strokes. Are letters completely formed? Are parts missing? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

12 7) Cursive and printed letters: Are there printed letters, cursive letters, or both? 8) Pen pressure: Differing amounts of pressure used by the writer can make lines light or dark, narrow or wide. Is pressure equal when applied to upward and downward strokes? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

13 9) Slant: analyzing the writing slant- left, right, straight, or variable? 10) Line habits: are the writer’s letters on, above, or below the baseline? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

14 11) Fancy curls or loops: Are there any fancy letters, curls, loops, circles, or other embellishments? 12) Letter characteristics: Are t’s crossed in the middle, towards the top, or bottom? Where is the placement of the dot (or circle, heart, etc.) above lowercase i’s? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

15 Factors that affect handwriting samples: 1. Position of writer (sitting or standing) 2. Position of Document (flat, vertical or horizontal surface) 3. Other Factors (under the influence of drugs, illness or injury) Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

16 4. Type of writing instrument 5. Writing surface 6. Underlying surface 7. Mood of writer 8. Age of writer 9. Writing speed Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

17 Complete the handwriting matching activity. Closure: Which factors do you think currently affect your handwriting at any given moment the most? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample using the 12 exemplars

18 Do Now: Take out your notes. What does “line quality” mean? Complete the handwriting activity 1. Closure: Does your handwriting slant to one side? Which side? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing tops & bottoms of letters and the Slants of letters

19 Do Now: Take out your notes. What does “continuous writing” mean? Complete the handwriting activity 2. Circle, underline, or highlight at least 6 pieces of proof for your answer to question 1, in addition to the data table. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OzXXO492Gas Closure: What is the most interesting fact about the zodiac killer that you have learned? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing tops & bottoms of letters and the Slants of letters

20 Do Now: Look at previous answers to your do-nows. Is your handwriting continuous? Start the handwriting activity 3. You should get at least 3 data tables finished. There will be a total of 7 data tables. Closure: Do you have a hard or soft writing pressure? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing tops & bottoms of letters and the Slants of letters

21 Do Now: Look at previous answers to your do- nows. Characterize how you do your “i” and cross your “t”. Finish the handwriting activity 3. There will be a total of 7 data tables. Closure: On a scale of 1-10, how much do you like handwriting analysis and would you consider it as a profession? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing tops & bottoms of letters and the Slants of letters

22 Do Now: Why are “i” and “t” such important letters to analyze? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing tops & bottoms of letters and the Slants of letters

23 Analysis of the Tops & Bottoms of Letters and the Slants of Letters Draw a dot at the top of each letter and connect the dots Draw a line through the center of each letter (maintaining the slant of the letter) Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing tops & bottoms of letters and the Slants of letters

24 Complete the handwriting activity 4. And hand it in. Closure: Can you still analyze handwriting efficiently if the writer writes in all capital letters? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing tops & bottoms of letters and the Slants of letters

25 Do Now: Before the extensive use of computers like now, serial killers often (and still do) write letters to the police in their own handwriting. What ways could they disguise their writing sample? Complete the serial killer handwriting worksheet and hand it in. Do not write on the group handout. Closure: What do you feel were the most obvious similarities between the serial killers writing samples? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing tops & bottoms of letters and the Slants of letters

26 Do Now: Give an example of a “fancy letter” used in our 12 exemplars. Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing tops & bottoms of letters and the Slants of letters

27 Analyzing Ink Chromatography is a method of physically separating the components of inks. Types HPLC—high-performance liquid chromatography TLC—thin-layer chromatography Paper chromatography Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing chromatography results

28

29 Paper Chromatography of Ink Example: Two samples of black ink from two different manufacturers have been characterized using paper chromatography. Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing chromatography results

30 Retention Factor (R f )  R f is a number that represents how far a compound travels in a particular solvent  It is determined by measuring the distance the compound traveled and dividing it by the distance the solvent traveled. Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing chromatography results

31 Closure: Which spot below (A-D, i-iv) has the greatest retention factor? Objectives: Determine the origin of a writing sample by analyzing chromatography results

32 Do Now: What are some measures the government uses to try to make counterfeiting checks and money difficult or impossible? Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

33 Forgery Forged documents include: checks employment records legal agreements licenses wills Fraudulence—forgery for material gain Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

34 Check forgery can include: ordering another’s checks from a deposit slip altering a check intercepting another’s check, altering, and cashing it creating a check from scratch Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

35 Check Forgery Americans write 70 billion checks per year – approximately $27 million worth of illegitimate checks are cashed each day. Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

36 Preventing Check Forgery Chemically sensitive paper Large font size requires more ink and makes alterations more difficult High resolution borders that are difficult to copy Multiple color patterns Embed fibers that glow under different light Use chemical wash detection systems that change color when a check is altered Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

37 Literary Forgery Forgery of a piece of writing such as a historic letter or manuscript is literary forgery. Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

38 Counterfeiting When false documents or other items are copied for the purpose of deception, it is called counterfeiting. This is a criminal activity existing since antiquity Items commonly forged today include: Currency Traveler’s checks Food stamps Certain bonds Postage stamps Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

39 Counterfeit Currency Security features are added to paper currency that scanning cannot reproduce Regular printer paper contains starch; Paper currency contains rag fiber instead of starch. Number one reason people suspect fakes is because it doesn’t feel right. Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

40 Intaglio Printing Intaglio printing process is used for the black print on the front side of the notes and the green print on the back side. Treasury seal, Federal Reserve seal, and serial numbers are printed by a typographic or letterpress process Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

41 IntaglioPhotocopied Counterfeit Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

42 Serial Numbers Two serial numbers printed in green ink on the face of each note. No two notes of the same series, bank, and denomination have the same serial number. The Federal Reserve banks are designated by a letter and a corresponding numeral. The first character of the serial number is a letter that designates the Federal Reserve Bank and matches the letter in the Federal reserve seal. Corresponding numerical designation of the Federal Reserve Bank is printed in four locations on the face of each note. Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

43

44 Currency is always being redesigned to make it more difficult to counterfeit. New bills: $20 – October 9, 2003 $50 – September 28, 2004 $10 – March 2, 2006 $5 – Early 2008 Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

45 Authentic vs. Counterfeit The tiny, intricate lines and details on paper money do not always print well in counterfeit bills. Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

46 Verifying Authentic Currency New Security Features: 1. Portrait stands out and appears raised off the paper 2. Contains clear red and blue fibers woven throughout the bill 3. Has clear, distinct border edges 4. Treasury seal is shown with clear, sharp saw-tooth points 5. Watermark appears on the right side of the bill in the light Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

47 6. The security thread is evident—a thin embedded vertical strip with the denomination of the bill printed in it 7. There is minute printing on the security threads, as well as around the portrait 8. When the bill is tilted, the number in the lower right- hand corner makes a color shift from copper to green Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

48 Examples of Security Features Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

49 Closure: List some comparisons in the evolution of the $20 bill below: Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting Current

50 Do Now: Where is the security thread on a five dollar bill located? Objectives: Determine how Forensic document examiners reconstruct shredded documents

51 Shredded Material Recovery The purpose of our work was to turn bags of shredded documents like these... Objectives: Determine how Forensic document examiners reconstruct shredded documents

52 Shredded Material Recovery Into legible documents like these... Objectives: Determine how Forensic document examiners reconstruct shredded documents

53 Shredded Material Recovery Which involved separation of individual shreds from the pile and re-assembling them piece by piece. Objectives: Determine how Forensic document examiners reconstruct shredded documents

54 Shredded Material Recovery Each bag of shredded paper contained an average of 100 recoverable documents. Objectives: Determine how Forensic document examiners reconstruct shredded documents

55 Complete the paper shredder lab and hand it in. Closure: How can you tell where a dollar bill is printed? Objectives: Determine how Forensic document examiners reconstruct shredded documents

56 Do Now: Pick up a video worksheet and put you name on it. There is no do now sheet this week. Watch “Catch Me If You Can” and fill out the answers on the worksheet. Closure: Complete as many of the worksheet answers as you can. Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

57 Do Now: Find your video worksheet. Review yesterday’s video segment. Watch “Catch Me If You Can” and fill out the answers on the worksheet. Closure: Complete as many of the worksheet answers as you can. Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

58 Do Now: Find your video worksheet. Review yesterday’s video segment. Watch “Catch Me If You Can” and fill out the answers on the worksheet. Closure: Complete all answers and hand in your video worksheet. Objectives: Determine the measures used to prevent forgery and counterfeiting

59 Do Now: Give three examples of “questioned documents.” Finish yesterdays shredder lab if you didn’t. You have 3 minutes to check over everyone’s documents. Objectives: Develop skills to determine if documents are counterfeit or real.

60 Counterfeit Money: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzYtozBwOxQ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzYtozBwOxQ Counterfeit Passports: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uzt4VVDX-T0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uzt4VVDX-T0 Complete the counterfeit questions and hand them in. Closure: It is said to be easier to counterfeit paper money rather than coins. Why do you think this is true? Objectives: Develop skills to determine if documents are counterfeit or real.

61 Do Now: What topics are on the test tomorrow? Graphology: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aoCAcLB1LbI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aoCAcLB1LbI Complete the questioned documents review sheet in order to figure out what is on the test tomorrow and study. Closure: What are you missing? Write it down and see me about getting copies. Hand in your do-now sheets (no do-now tomorrow) Objectives: develop a review sheet to study for the upcoming test.


Download ppt "Questioned Documents Unit. Do Now : What kind of documents will investigators observe in order to connect suspects to a crime? Objectives: Determine the."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google