Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Handwriting Analysis, Forgery, and Counterfeiting By the end of this chapter you will be able to: Describe 12 types of handwriting characteristics."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 10 Handwriting Analysis, Forgery, and Counterfeiting By the end of this chapter you will be able to:Describe 12 types of handwriting characteristicsthat can be analyzed in a documentDemonstrate an example of each of the 3 types of handwriting traitsIdentify the major goal of a forensic handwriting analysis
2 Chapter 10 Handwriting Analysis, Forgery, and Counterfeiting By the end of this chapter you will be able to:Distinguish between the terms forgery and fraudulenceIdentify several ways that businesses prevent check forgeryDescribe 4 features of paper currency that are used to detect counterfeit bills
4 IntroductionExamine and compare questioned documents with known materialQuestioned document: source is in dispute or is uncertain (signature, handwriting, etc.)Field investigations include:HandwritingComputer printoutsCommercial printingPaper and inkThreatening, ransom, or suicide notesAnalysis helps identify a document’s author
5 IntroductionDocument Expert – compares handwriting and other features using a scientific method. vs. Graphologist – indicates the personality of the writer. Not accepted in the scientific community!
8 History of Forensic Handwriting Analysis 1930s—handwriting analysis played a role in the famous Lindbergh case.1999—the US Court of Appeals determined that handwriting analysis qualifies as a form of expert testimonyTo be admissible in court, scientifically accepted guidelines must be followedScotland Yard, the FBI, and the Secret Service use handwriting analysis
9 Letter Formshapecurveangle (slant)sizeconnecting lines between letters,correct letters (dotted i’s, crossed t’s)Line Form – smoothness of letter and the darkness of the lines on upward and downward strokesFormattingSpacing between words and linesPlacement of words on a lineMargins a writer leaves empty on a page
10 Introduction to Handwriting Everyone’s handwriting shows natural variations. Here are 6 of the 12 major, specific traits.
11 Introduction to Handwriting The traits are functions of formatting or of letter or line form. Here are the other 6 of the 12 major, specific traits.
12 Handwriting Examination Each person has a unique handwriting style!!!Two writings came from one person if:their similarities are unique andno unexplainable difference(s) are foundExamine the questionable document for detectable traits and record themObtain a known sample of the suspect’s writing (an exemplar) *used as a tool to include or exclude persons.Compare and draw conclusions about the authorship of the questionable document
13 Handwriting Examination Conscious writing effort: to avoid this:Do Not show suspect the known documentGive no instructions on punctuation or grammarUse similar pen or pencilForensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 10
14 Technology Used in Handwriting Analysis Initial comparisons are done with the naked eye, lens or microscope!Biometric Signature Pads“Learns” to recognize how a person signsEvaluates speed, pressure, and rhythm of the signatureRecognizes forgeries by the detection of even slight differencesComputerized AnalysisCompares handwriting samples objectively, and faster than by an individualThe Forensic Information System for Handwriting (FISH) is a database used and maintained by the Secret Service.
15 Handwriting Evidence in the Courtroom Shortcomings in Analysis After handwriting samples are scientifically analyzed, the expert handwriting witness prepares a written report of the analysis to present to a jury.Evidence in the CourtroomExpert explains how comparisons were madeCross-examination by defense attorney may followShortcomings in AnalysisAre the base documents real or fake?Did mood, age, fatigue impact the handwriting?Did experts miss details any details?
16 Forgery Forged documents include: checksemployment recordslegal agreementslicenseswillsFraudulence—forgery for material gain(to profit from the fake or alterations)
17 Forgery Check forgery can include: ordering another’s checks from a deposit slipaltering a checkintercepting another’s check, altering, and cashing itcreating a check from scratch
18 Preventing Check Forgery Chemically sensitive paperLarge font size requires more ink and makes alterations more difficultHigh resolution borders that are difficult to copyMultiple color patternsEmbed fibers that glow under different lightUse chemical wash detection systems that change color when a check is altered
19 Literary Forgery - forgery of a writing, such as a historic letter or manuscript Best forgeries aim to duplicate the materials found in the original:old paperchemically treated materials to fake an older lookinks mixed from substances that would have been used at the timewatermarks that add the appearance of agetools and styles that would have been popular at the time
21 Counterfeiting - when false documents or other items are copied for the purpose of deception A criminal activity existing since antiquityItems commonly forged today include:CurrencyTraveler’s checksFood stampsCertain bondsPostage stampsThe number one way we suspect fakes is the feel of the texture
22 Counterfeit CurrencySecurity features are added to paper currency that scanning cannot reproduceEX. Tiny intricate lines and details that cannot be scanned wellRegular printer paper contains starch.Paper currency contains rag fiber instead of starch.Government continues to change the design of paper money
24 Verifying Authentic Currency New security features:Portrait stands out and appears raised off the paperContains clear red and blue fibers woven throughout the billHas clear, distinct border edgesTreasury seal is shown with clear, sharp saw-tooth pointsWatermark appears on the right side of the bill in the light
25 Verifying Authentic Currency New security features:The security thread is evident—a thin embedded vertical strip with the denomination of the bill printed in itThere is minute printing on the security threads, as well as around the portraitWhen the bill is tilted, the number in the lower right-hand corner makes a color shift from copper to greenCounterfeiting pens contain iodine which reacts with the starch in printing paper. Real currency does not contain starch. 98% effective.Turns bluish-black when reaction occurs. Counterfeit !!!!Turns pale yellow and fades away when exposed to real currency!
27 SummaryHandwriting analysis compares questioned documents with exemplars to establish authorship.Aspects of a person’s handwriting style can be analyzed to ascertain authenticity.Many new features of paper currency help prevent counterfeiting.Technological advances have enhanced chances of detecting forged documents.