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Muscles and Muscle Tissue

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1 Muscles and Muscle Tissue
9 P A R T A Muscles and Muscle Tissue

2 The three types of muscle tissue are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
Muscle Overview The three types of muscle tissue are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth These types differ in structure, location, function, and means of activation PLAY InterActive Physiology ®: Anatomy Review: Skeletal Muscle Tissue, page 3

3 Muscle terminology is similar
Muscle Similarities Skeletal and smooth muscle cells are elongated and are called muscle fibers Muscle contraction depends on two kinds of myofilaments – actin and myosin Muscle terminology is similar Sarcolemma – muscle plasma membrane Sarcoplasm – cytoplasm of a muscle cell Prefixes – myo, mys, and sarco all refer to muscle

4 Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Packaged in skeletal muscles that attach to and cover the bony skeleton Has obvious stripes called striations Is controlled voluntarily (i.e., by conscious control) Contracts rapidly but tires easily Is responsible for overall body motility Is extremely adaptable and can exert forces ranging from a fraction of an ounce to over 70 pounds

5 Functional Characteristics of Muscle Tissue
Excitability, or irritability – the ability to receive and respond to stimuli Contractility – the ability to shorten forcibly Extensibility – the ability to be stretched or extended Elasticity – the ability to recoil and resume the original resting length

6 Muscle Function Skeletal muscles are responsible for all locomotion Cardiac muscle is responsible for coursing the blood through the body Smooth muscle helps maintain blood pressure, and squeezes or propels substances (i.e., food, feces) through organs Muscles also maintain posture, stabilize joints, and generate heat

7 Skeletal Muscle PLAY InterActive Physiology ®:
Anatomy Review: Skeletal Muscle Tissue, pages 4-6 Figure 9.2a

8 Structure and Organization of Skeletal Muscle
Table 9.1b

9 Skeletal Muscle: Nerve and Blood Supply
Each muscle is served by one nerve, an artery, and one or more veins Each skeletal muscle fiber is supplied with a nerve ending that controls contraction Contracting fibers require continuous delivery of oxygen and nutrients via arteries Wastes must be removed via veins

10 Microscopic Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber
Each fiber is a long, cylindrical cell with multiple nuclei just beneath the sarcolemma Fibers are 10 to 100 m in diameter, and up to hundreds of centimeters long Each cell is a syncytium produced by fusion of embryonic cells

11 Microscopic Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber
Sarcoplasm has numerous glycosomes and a unique oxygen-binding protein called myoglobin Fibers contain the usual organelles, myofibrils, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and T tubules

12 Myofibrils PLAY InterActive Physiology ®:
Anatomy Review: Skeletal Muscle Tissue, pages 7-8 Figure 9.3b

13 Sarcomeres PLAY InterActive Physiology ®:
Anatomy Review: Skeletal Muscle Tissue, page 9 Figure 9.3c

14 Myofilaments: Banding Pattern
Figure 9.3c,d

15 Ultrastructure of Myofilaments: Thick Filaments
Figure 9.4a,b

16 Ultrastructure of Myofilaments: Thin Filaments
Figure 9.4c

17 Arrangement of the Filaments in a Sarcomere
Longitudinal section within one sarcomere Figure 9.4d

18 Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
Figure 9.5

19 Sliding Filament Theory of Contraction (continued)

20 Excitation-Contraction Coupling (continued)
Ca2+ attaches to troponin. Tropomyosin-troponin complex configuration change occurs. Cross bridges attach to actin.

21 Contraction (continued)

22 Neuromuscular Junction
The neuromuscular junction is formed from: Axonal endings, which have small membranous sacs (synaptic vesicles) that contain the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) The motor end plate of a muscle, which is a specific part of the sarcolemma that contains ACh receptors and helps form the neuromuscular junction

23 Motor Unit: The Nerve-Muscle Functional Unit
Large weight-bearing muscles (thighs, hips) have large motor units Muscle fibers from a motor unit are spread throughout the muscle; therefore, contraction of a single motor unit causes weak contraction of the entire muscle

24 Motor Unit: The Nerve-Muscle Functional Unit
PLAY InterActive Physiology ®: Contraction of Motor Units, pages 3-9 Figure 9.13a

25 Motor Unit (continued)
Each somatic neuron together with all the muscle fibers it innervates. Each muscle fiber receives a single axon terminal from a somatic neuron. Each axon can have collateral branches to innervate an equal # of fibers.

26 Synaptic Cleft: Information Transfer
Neurotransmitter Ca2+ Na+ Axon terminal of presynaptic neuron Action potential Receptor 1 Postsynaptic membrane Mitochondrion Postsynaptic membrane Axon of presynaptic neuron Ion channel open Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitter molecules 5 Degraded neurotransmitter 2 Synaptic cleft 3 4 Ion channel closed Ion channel (closed) Ion channel (open) Figure 11.18

27 Neuromuscular Junction
Figure 9.7 (a-c)

28 Excitation-Contraction Coupling
Na+ diffusion produces end-plate potential (depolarization). + ions are attracted to negative plasma membrane. If depolarization sufficient, threshold occurs, producing APs.

29 Excitation-Contraction (EC) Coupling
Action potential generated and propagated along sarcomere to T-tubules Action potential triggers Ca2+ release Ca++ bind to troponin; blocking action of tropomyosin released Contraction via crossbridge formation; ATP hyrdolysis Removal of Ca+2 by active transport Tropomyosin blockage restored; contraction ends Figure 9.10

30 Figure 9.10 Synaptic cleft vesicle 1 ACh SR tubules (cut) SR 2 6 3
ADP Pi Net entry of Na+ Initiates an action potential which is propagated along the sarcolemma and down the T tubules. T tubule Sarcolemma SR tubules (cut) Synaptic cleft vesicle Axon terminal ACh Neurotransmitter released diffuses across the synaptic cleft and attaches to ACh receptors on the sarcolemma. Action potential in T tubule activates voltage-sensitive receptors, which in turn trigger Ca2+ release from terminal cisternae of SR into cytosol. Calcium ions bind to troponin; troponin changes shape, removing the blocking action of tropomyosin; actin active sites exposed. Contraction; myosin heads alternately attach to actin and detach, pulling the actin filaments toward the center of the sarcomere; release of energy by ATP hydrolysis powers the cycling process. Removal of Ca2+ by active transport into the SR after the action potential ends. SR Tropomyosin blockage restored, blocking myosin binding sites on actin; contraction ends and muscle fiber relaxes. Ca2+ 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 9.10

31 Contraction of Skeletal Muscle (Organ Level)
Contraction of muscle fibers (cells) and muscles (organs) is similar The two types of muscle contractions are: Isometric contraction – increasing muscle tension (muscle does not shorten during contraction) Isotonic contraction – decreasing muscle length (muscle shortens during contraction)

32 Isotonic Contractions
Figure 9.19a

33 Isometric Contractions
Figure 9.19b

34 There are three phases to a muscle twitch
A muscle twitch is the response of a muscle to a single, brief threshold stimulus There are three phases to a muscle twitch Latent period Period of contraction Period of relaxation

35 Phases of a Muscle Twitch
Latent period – first few msec after stimulus; EC coupling taking place Period of contraction – cross bridges from; muscle shortens Period of relaxation – Ca2+ reabsorbed; muscle tension goes to zero Figure 9.14a

36 Muscle Twitch Comparisons
Figure 9.14b

37 Graded Muscle Responses
Graded muscle responses are: Variations in the degree of muscle contraction Required for proper control of skeletal movement Responses are graded by: Changing the frequency of stimulation Changing the strength of the stimulus

38 Muscle Response to Varying Stimuli
More rapidly delivered stimuli result in incomplete tetanus If stimuli are given quickly enough, complete tetanus results Figure 9.15

39 Twitch, Summation, and Tetanus (continued)

40 Muscle Response: Stimulation Strength
Threshold stimulus – the stimulus strength at which the first observable muscle contraction occurs Beyond threshold, muscle contracts more vigorously as stimulus strength is increased Force of contraction is precisely controlled by multiple motor unit summation This phenomenon, called recruitment, brings more and more muscle fibers into play

41 Stimulus Intensity and Muscle Tension
Figure 9.16

42 Size Principle Figure 9.17

43 Treppe: The Staircase Effect
Staircase – increased contraction in response to multiple stimuli of the same strength Contractions increase because: There is increasing availability of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasm Muscle enzyme systems become more efficient because heat is increased as muscle contracts

44 Treppe: The Staircase Effect
Figure 9.18

45 Spinal reflexes account for muscle tone by:
Is the constant, slightly contracted state of all muscles, which does not produce active movements Keeps the muscles firm, healthy, and ready to respond to stimulus Spinal reflexes account for muscle tone by: Activating one motor unit and then another Responding to activation of stretch receptors in muscles and tendons

46 Isotonic Contractions
In isotonic contractions, the muscle changes in length (decreasing the angle of the joint) and moves the load The two types of isotonic contractions are concentric and eccentric Concentric contractions – the muscle shortens and does work Eccentric contractions – the muscle contracts as it lengthens

47 Isotonic Contractions
Figure 9.19a

48 Isometric Contractions
Tension increases to the muscle’s capacity, but the muscle neither shortens nor lengthens Occurs if the load is greater than the tension the muscle is able to develop

49 Isometric Contractions
Figure 9.19b

50 Muscle Metabolism: Energy for Contraction
ATP is the only source used directly for contractile activity As soon as available stores of ATP are hydrolyzed (4-6 seconds), they are regenerated by: The interaction of ADP with creatine phosphate (CP) Anaerobic glycolysis Aerobic respiration PLAY InterActive Physiology ®: Muscle Metabolism, pages 3-15

51 Muscle Metabolism: Energy for Contraction
Figure 9.20

52 Metabolism of Skeletal Muscles (continued)
Phosphocreatine (creatine phosphate): Rapid source of renewal of ATP. ADP combines with creatine phosphate. [Phosphocreatine] is 3 times [ATP]. Ready source of high-energy phosphate.

53 Muscle fatigue occurs when:
Muscle fatigue – the muscle is in a state of physiological inability to contract Muscle fatigue occurs when: ATP production fails to keep pace with ATP use There is a relative deficit of ATP, causing contractures Lactic acid accumulates in the muscle Ionic imbalances are present

54 Muscle Fatigue Intense exercise produces rapid muscle fatigue (with rapid recovery) Na+-K+ pumps cannot restore ionic balances quickly enough Low-intensity exercise produces slow-developing fatigue SR is damaged and Ca2+ regulation is disrupted

55 Heat Production During Muscle Activity
Only 40% of the energy released in muscle activity is useful as work The remaining 60% is given off as heat Dangerous heat levels are prevented by radiation of heat from the skin and sweating

56 Force of Muscle Contraction
The force of contraction is affected by: The number of muscle fibers contracting – the more motor fibers in a muscle, the stronger the contraction The relative size of the muscle – the bulkier the muscle, the greater its strength Degree of muscle stretch – muscles contract strongest when muscle fibers are % of their normal resting length

57 Force of Muscle Contraction
Figure 9.21a–c

58 Length Tension Relationships
Figure 9.22

59 Muscle Fiber Type: Functional Characteristics
Speed of contraction – determined by speed in which ATPases split ATP The two types of fibers are slow and fast ATP-forming pathways Oxidative fibers – use aerobic pathways Glycolytic fibers – use anaerobic glycolysis These two criteria define three categories – slow oxidative fibers, fast oxidative fibers, and fast glycolytic fibers PLAY InterActive Physiology ®: Muscle Metabolism, pages 16-22

60 Muscle Twitch Comparisons
Figure 9.14b

61 Table 9.2

62 Muscle Fiber Type: Speed of Contraction
Slow oxidative fibers contract slowly, have slow acting myosin ATPases, and are fatigue resistant Fast oxidative fibers contract quickly, have fast myosin ATPases, and have moderate resistance to fatigue Fast glycolytic fibers contract quickly, have fast myosin ATPases, and are easily fatigued PLAY InterActive Physiology ®: Muscle Metabolism, pages 24-29

63 Effects of Aerobic Exercise
Aerobic exercise results in an increase of: Muscle capillaries Number of mitochondria Myoglobin synthesis

64 Effects of Resistance Exercise
Resistance exercise (typically anaerobic) results in: Muscle hypertrophy Increased mitochondria, myofilaments, and glycogen stores

65 The Overload Principle
Forcing a muscle to work promotes increased muscular strength Muscles adapt to increased demands Muscles must be overloaded to produce further gains

66 Proportion and Organization of Myofilaments in Smooth Muscle
Figure 9.26

67 Smooth Muscle Composed of spindle-shaped fibers with a diameter of 2-10 m and lengths of several hundred m Lack the coarse connective tissue sheaths of skeletal muscle, but have fine endomysium Organized into two layers (longitudinal and circular) of closely apposed fibers

68 Smooth Muscle Found in walls of hollow organs (except the heart) Have essentially the same contractile mechanisms as skeletal muscle

69 Microscopic Anatomy of Smooth Muscle
SR is less developed than in skeletal muscle and lacks a specific pattern T tubules are absent Plasma membranes have pouchlike infoldings called caveoli

70 Microscopic Anatomy of Smooth Muscle
Ca2+ is sequestered in the extracellular space near the caveoli, allowing rapid influx when channels are opened There are no visible striations and no sarcomeres Thin and thick filaments are present

71 Proportion and Organization of Myofilaments in Smooth Muscle
Ratio of thick to thin filaments is much lower than in skeletal muscle Thick filaments have heads along their entire length There is no troponin complex

72 Proportion and Organization of Myofilaments in Smooth Muscle
Thick and thin filaments are arranged diagonally, causing smooth muscle to contract in a corkscrew manner Noncontractile intermediate filament bundles attach to dense bodies (analogous to Z discs) at regular intervals

73 Innervation of Smooth Muscle
Smooth muscle lacks neuromuscular junctions Innervating nerves have bulbous swellings called varicosities Varicosities release neurotransmitters into wide synaptic clefts called diffuse junctions

74 Innervation of Smooth Muscle
Figure 9.25

75 Contraction of Smooth Muscle
Whole sheets of smooth muscle exhibit slow, synchronized contraction They contract in unison, reflecting their electrical coupling with gap junctions Action potentials are transmitted from cell to cell

76 Contraction of Smooth Muscle
Some smooth muscle cells: Act as pacemakers and set the contractile pace for whole sheets of muscle Are self-excitatory and depolarize without external stimuli

77 Contraction Mechanism
Actin and myosin interact according to the sliding filament mechanism The final trigger for contractions is a rise in intracellular Ca2+ Ca2+ is released from the SR and from the extracellular space Ca2+ interacts with calmodulin and myosin light chain kinase to activate myosin

78 Role of Calcium Ion Ca2+ binds to calmodulin and activates it Activated calmodulin activates the kinase enzyme Activated kinase transfers phosphate from ATP to myosin cross bridges Phosphorylated cross bridges interact with actin to produce shortening Smooth muscle relaxes when intracellular Ca2+ levels drop

79 Types of Smooth Muscle: Single Unit
The cells of single-unit smooth muscle, commonly called visceral muscle: Contract rhythmically as a unit Are electrically coupled to one another via gap junctions Often exhibit spontaneous action potentials Are arranged in opposing sheets and exhibit stress-relaxation response

80 Types of Smooth Muscle: Multiunit
Multiunit smooth muscles are found: In large airways to the lungs In large arteries In arrector pili muscles Attached to hair follicles In the internal eye muscles

81 Types of Smooth Muscle: Multiunit
Their characteristics include: Rare gap junctions Infrequent spontaneous depolarizations Structurally independent muscle fibers A rich nerve supply, which, with a number of muscle fibers, forms motor units Graded contractions in response to neural stimuli

82 Muscular Dystrophy Muscular dystrophy – group of inherited muscle-destroying diseases where muscles enlarge due to fat and connective tissue deposits, but muscle fibers atrophy

83 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)
Inherited, sex-linked disease carried by females and expressed in males (1/3500) Diagnosed between the ages of 2-10 Victims become clumsy and fall frequently as their muscles fail

84 Muscular Dystrophy Progresses from the extremities upward, and victims die of respiratory failure in their 20s Caused by a lack of the cytoplasmic protein dystrophin There is no cure, but myoblast transfer therapy shows promise

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