2DefinitionsWebster: “advice, especially that given as a result of consultationJackson: “anytime someone helps someone else with a problemRogers: “good communication within and between peopleOhlsen: “a therapeutic experience for reasonably healthy persons”
3Types of CounselingInformational: “counseling in which a counselor shares a body of special information with a counselee”Situational: “related to specific situations in life that may create crises and produce human pain and suffering”Psychotherapy: “intervention with people whose needs are so specific that usually they can only be met by specially trained physicians or psychologists”
4Styles of CounselingDirective: “counselor takes a live speaking role, asking questions, suggesting courses of action etc.Non-directive/Client Centered/Person Centered: “one comes actively and voluntarily to gain help on a problem………stresses the inherent worth of the client and natural capacity for growth and health”Phenomenological approach
5Grief Counseling“helping people facilitate uncomplicated grief to a healthy completion of the tasks of grieving within a reasonable time frame”
6Grief Therapy(Worden): “specialized techniques which are used to help people with complicated grief reactions”Complicated (Unresolved, Chronic) Grief: “grief extending over a long period of time without resolution”
7Worden’s Goals of Grief Counseling 1) to increase the reality of the loss2) to help the counselee deal with both expressed and latent affect3) to help the counselee overcome various impediments to readjust after loss4) to encourage the counselee to make a healthy emotional withdrawal from the deceased and to feel comfortable re-investing that emotion in other relationships
8Worden’s Counseling Principles and Procedures 1) help the survivor actualize the loss2) help the survivor to identify and express feelingsretroflected feelingsreality testing3) assist living without the deceased4) facilitate emotional withdrawal5) provide time to grieve
9Principles and Procedures (cont’d) 6) recognize “normal” behavior7) allow for individual differences8) provide continuing support9) examine defense mechanisms and coping styles10) identify pathology and refer“gatekeeper” role
10Guidelines for Care Providers 1) Offer yourself.2) Be respectful.3) Become comfortable with silence.4) Be a skilled listener.5) Normalize practically everything.6) Avoid judgment.7) Take action.
11Guidelines (cont’d) 8) Don’t do everything by yourself. 9) Keep your promises.10) Teach the “side by side” or intermittent approach to grieving.11) Be sensitive to cultural, ethnic, and family traditions.12) “Bracket” your “Cowbells” when they surface.13) Be aware of and respond to your own compassion fatigue.
12Ways that FDs Facilitate Grief (Worden)1) fulfilling their responsibility in counseling during the entire service2) following up with post funeral counseling3) providing contacts for the family with other support groups4) providing a service in teaching people about grief and healthy grieving by sponsoring and presenting educational programs in the community