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Mobilizing the Home Front Chapter 13.1 Poster shows “Rosie” rolling up her sleeves for work in war production.

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Presentation on theme: "Mobilizing the Home Front Chapter 13.1 Poster shows “Rosie” rolling up her sleeves for work in war production."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mobilizing the Home Front Chapter 13.1 Poster shows “Rosie” rolling up her sleeves for work in war production

2 Today’s Objectives 1.Identify the term Gold Star Mother. 2.List and describe ways in which FDR built national morale after Pearl Harbor? What did he say Americans were fighting for? 3.List and describe ways in which the average American could voluntarily contribute to the war effort? 4.What role did the media play in war effort? 5.What role did the War Production Board play in the war effort? 6.How was the American economy affected by the war? 7.What role did the National War Labor Board play in the war effort and where would this agency fall on the political spectrum? 8.Define rationing and explain how it worked. 9.How did the US government pay for the war? 10.Describe labor relations during the war. 11.Identify the term Rosie the Riveter and explain if she is an accurate portrayal of how women were viewed during the War?

3 Review When did the War begin for Europe/for America? Be specific about the triggering events. How did the war go for the France and Great Britain in the beginning? Be specific about the events. How did FDR gradually get America involved in the War? Be specific. To what does the term “Closing the Ring” refer?

4 Gold Star Mothers Video capture about notifying families who’ve lost a son in the war

5 What do the stars displayed in windows represent? Blue Star= a son or daughter in the service Silver Star = …wounded in the service Gold Star = …killed in action. Above: the stars displayed on flags; below: The Sullivan Brothers on board the USS Juneau

6 War widow speaks about “fearing the knock on the door”

7 How did FDR build national morale after Pearl Harbor? What did he say Americans were fighting for? Four Freedoms Expression (speech) Worship from want from fear Government created Office of Civilian Defense (OCD) –Citizen encouraged to give“an hour a day for the USA” Echoing Wilson’s reason’s for WWI –“To make the world safe for democracy.” Any contemporary comparisons? Informally posed FDR speaks to a crowd

8 Video clip: Peter Jennings on the context for mobilization

9 What were some of the ways the average American could voluntarily contribute to the war effort? OCD allowed numerous voluntary jobs Air raid wardens- enforced blackouts Spotters- scanned sky for bombers Victory Gardens- home (anywhere) gardens that helped save food for soldiers Produced 40% of all vegetables Scrap Drives- collected metal, rubber, aluminum, etc. Above: kid poses by sign promoting victory gardens; below: poster asks people to turn in their junk for scrap

10 Video clip: more Peter Jennings

11 What role did the media play in war effort? Government created Office of War Information to keep citizens informed –Encouraged newspapers, radio stations, movies industry to help keep Americans informed and moral high Hollywood rushed to make movies (John Wayne) –Portrayed Americans as heroes, “Japs” as evil, Germans as barbarians –Little Orphan Annie encouraged readers to collect scrap metal –Superman promoted war bonds, the Red Cross Above and below: cartoonists get in on the act (encourage rationing, show Hitler and Tojo as grotesque)

12 Capture from a newsreel of battle footage, showing atrocities committeed by the enemy

13 What role did the War Production Board play in the war effort? Converted American industry to war production Limited the production of nonessential materials How? –Paid for new plants, equipment –Guaranteed high profits Did it work? –Production soared –Henry Kaiser’s ship construction co. made a ship every 14 days (used to take 105) Above: poster exhorts workers- “Let’s keep our ‘E’”

14 How was the American economy affected by the war? It boomed GNP ($ value of all goods and services produced in 1 year) –From $90.5 billion(1939) to $211.9 billion (1945) Created 17 million more jobs Crop prices doubled Cost of living rose 15% by 1942 –Why? Assembly line for bombs, with female workers

15 What role did the National War Labor Board play in the war effort and where would this agency fall on the political spectrum? Controlled wages and monitored inflation Allowed wages to rise 15% (COLA) April ’43 = ordered “Hold the line” –A wage freeze Office of Price Administration set ceiling on all prices Where is the government on the political spectrum? Hangar with newly manufactured aircraft

16 Define rationing and explain how it worked. Rationing –a way of limiting the consumption of essential goods Essential items (meat & butter) could only be purchased with ration coupons Coupons distributed based on family size Ration coupon and a poster suggesting that ‘Scrap’ equals power

17 How did the US government pay for the war? Spent $321 billion ( ) –Double the spending from previous 150 years together!!! Taxes =40% –Revenue Act (1942) required almost everyone to pay income taxes War Bonds=60% –certificates that promised principal and interests (10 years) Americans saved $129 billion by 1945 Above: chart showing growth in spending and taxes; below: poster- ‘Buy War Bonds’

18 Describe labor relations during the war. Large unions=no strike pledge National War Labor Board –Arbitrated disputes between management and labor –Seized uncooperative plants –FDR nationalized the mines after UMW went on strike in ‘43 Above: Poster touts co-operation between labor and industry; below: cartoon suggests a wage freeze in time of inflation is unfair

19 Video capture: impressive wartime production

20 Rosie the Riveter presentation: Day 8 ‘Rosie’ on cover of Saturday Evening Post

21 Who was Rosie the Riveter and is she an accurate portrayal of how women were viewed during the War? Symbolic label of working women in traditionally male jobs during WWII Worked as welders, riveters, mechanics 6 million women worked Paid 60% less than men Released from job when war ended Poster urges a young woman worker to ‘produce for victory’


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