Presentation on theme: "Basic Human Needs Mobility & the Hazards of Immobility"— Presentation transcript:
1Basic Human Needs Mobility & the Hazards of Immobility
2Mobility serves many purposes Performance of ADLSatisfaction of basic needsSelf-defenseExpression of emotionRecreational activitiesNeed intact & functioning M/S & nervous system to achieve mobility
3Principles of Body Mechanics Body Mechanics-coordinated efforts of M/S & nervous systems to maintain balance, posture & body alignment during lifting, bending, moving, & performing ADL’sProper use of body mechanics reduces risk for injury and ensures safe care
4Principles of Body Mechanics AlignmentBalanceGravityFriction
14Respiratory ChangesLack of exercise & movement put client at risk for:Atelectasis-Collapse of alveoli leading to partial collapse of lungHypostatic Pneumonia- Inflammation of lung tissue from stasis or pooling of secretionsBoth decrease oxygenation, prolong recovery, & add to discomfort
25Urinary Elimination Changes Stasis and pooling of urine in renal pelvis leads to increased risk for infection and renal calculiRisk for dehydration and decreased urine outputUTI’s due to foley catheter
26Other ChangesIntegumentary changes (Risk assessment tool for skin breakdown, proper skin hygiene)Psychosocial effects (Depression from immobility)Developmental Changes
27Nursing Process & Immobility AssessmentAssess immobilized client for hazards of immobilityROM exercises (P&P pgs )
28Nursing Process: Nursing Diagnosis You tell me!!!
29Implementation Health Promotion Acute Care: Metabolic system Respiratory systemCardiovascular systemMusculoskeletal systemElimination system
30Metabolic System Evaluate muscle atrophy I&O Monitor lab data (BUN, albumin, protein, electrolytes)Assess wound healingAssess edemaAssess for dehydration (Skin turgor, mucous membranes)Assess nutritional status (protein and vitamin supplements, enteral feedings, TPN)
31Respiratory System Frequent respiratory assessment Ascultate lung soundsInspect chest wall movementPromote lung expansion and stasis of pulmonary secrectionsDeep breathing and coughing exercisesIncentive spirometerChest physiotherapySuctioningHydrationPositioning every 2 hours
32Cardiovascular System Vital sign monitoringAssess for orthostatic changes (Baseline BP)Reduce workload of heartPeripheral pulse assessmentAssessment of edema (hearts inability to handle increased work load)Prevent thrombus formationAssessment of DVT (Calf circumference)
38Musculoskeletal System Assessment of muscle tone, strength, loss of muscle mass, contracturesAssess for risk of disuse osteoporosisAssessment of ROMPassive ROM for all immobilized jointsPhysical therapy consultPrevent foot drop and contractures
50Practice ScenarioA 72 year old client is recovering following abdominal surgery for colon cancer. Which hazards of immobility is this client at risk for and why?How would you as the nurse prevent post-operative complications associated with this client’s condition?
51Practice QuestionWhich nursing assessment of the immobilized client would prompt the nurse to take further action?A. Client complaining of fatiqueB. Urinary output of 50 ml/hrC. White blood cell count of 9.5D. Absence of bowel sounds
52Practice QuestionDuring an exercise session, the nurse assists the client to dorsiflex and plantarflex the foot, explaining the client needs to exercise the foot to maintain function. The nurse recognizes this type of exercise activity as:A. Active range of motionB. Passive range of motionC. Isometric exerciseD. Isotonic exercise
53Practice QuestionWhich of the following clients is most at risk for thrombus formation?A. Client with renal failureB. Client with severe abdominal painC. Client with a total hip replacementD. Client with right sided heart failure
54Practice QuestionWhich of the following is true concerning the physiologic effects of immobility?A. Serum calcium levels decrease.B. Hypertension develops because of increased cardiac workload.C. Caloric intake often increases.D. Secretions may block bronchioles.