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Volcanism Volcanic Features Location and Types of Volcanic Activity Effusive Eruptions Explosive Eruptions Volcano Forecasting and Planning.

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Presentation on theme: "Volcanism Volcanic Features Location and Types of Volcanic Activity Effusive Eruptions Explosive Eruptions Volcano Forecasting and Planning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Volcanism Volcanic Features Location and Types of Volcanic Activity Effusive Eruptions Explosive Eruptions Volcano Forecasting and Planning

2 Volcanoes Volcanic activity takes place primarily at subduction boundaries, VOCABULARY How and Where Volcanoes Form Oceanic lithosphere Continental lithosphere Asthenosphere 1. Water in the subducted rock is released into the asthenosphere. 2. The water lowers the melting temperatures of materials in the asthenosphere, leading to magma formation. 3. The magma is less dense than its surroundings, so it rises. 4. Some of the magma reaches Earth’s surface, and volcanoes form on the overriding continental plate. volcano hot spot

3 The Hawaiian Islands formed over a hot spot. Volcanoes Magma and volcanoes also form at hot spots. VOCABULARY How and Where Volcanoes Form Direction of Plate Movement Kauai Oahu Molokai Lanai Maui Hawaii volcano hot spot

4 How Magma Rises

5 Volcanic Settings

6 Plate Tectonics and Magma Generation

7 Major Volcanoes Around the World

8 Gases escape easily from basaltic magma, generating relatively quiet eruptions. Hardened basaltic lava flows on land are characterized as pahoehoe or aa; if the lava cools underwater, it is characterized as pillow lava. Magma and Erupted Materials A.Parameters of volcanism: 1.Viscosity 2.Chemistry of Magma 3.Gases within the magma 4.Water content of magma

9 VOCABULARY viscosity lava pahoehoe aa pillow lava pyroclastic material pyroclastic flow Magma and Erupted Materials Viscosity: Viscosity is a measure of how thick (viscous) and sticky a liquid is. Magma and Erupted Materials

10 Lava Flows Lava Flow - A 'stream' of molten rock 'aa' lava flow - jagged, rubbly, broken surface 'pahoehoe' lava flow - smooth, ropy surface

11 Silica Content Melting Temp. Gas Content Viscosity Type of Eruption Location Least (~50%) Basaltic Magma Least Least viscous Rarely explosive Highest Rifts, oceanic hot spots AndesiticMagma Intermediate (~60%) Intermediate Sometimes explosive Intermediate Subduction boundaries Rhyolitic Magma Most (~70%) Most Most viscous Usually explosive Lowest Continental hot spots Magma and Erupted Materials

12 Volcanic Landforms A volcano’s shape and structure depend on how it erupts and what materials are released. Shield volcanoes are formed by basaltic lava that flows long distances before hardening.

13 Tectonic Settings and Volcanic Activity

14 Igneous __________- classified by shape, size, and orientation Intrusions

15 There are three types of volcanic cones: ______ – explosive eruptions, small but steep slopes, pyroclastics. _______ – non-explosive eruptions, fluid basaltic lava, gentle broad slopes. _________ – alternating between lava and pyroclastics, explosive and non-explosive eruptions, steep and tall. Cinder Shield Composite

16 Volcano Types

17 Volcanoes A volcano’s shape and structure depend on how it erupts and what materials are released. VOCABULARY Volcanic Landforms Shield volcanoes are formed by basaltic lava that flows long distances before hardening. Shield Volcano shield volcano cinder cone composite volcano lahar caldera lava plateau

18 Shield and Composite Volcanoes

19 Volcanoes Cinder cones are formed when molten lava is thrown into the air from a vent and breaks into drops. These drops harden into cinders that form a steep cone around the vent. Volcanic Landforms Cinder Cone

20 Volcanoes Composite volcanoes are formed by layers of pyroclastic materials and lava that have erupted in the past. Volcanic Landforms Composite Volcano

21 Composite volcanoes

22 Debris Avalanche and Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

23 Nuee ardente: pyroclastic flow, of searing superheated gas and incandescent volcanic ash and dust Mount Pelee, on the Carribean island of Martinique, 1902 eruption. All but 2 of the more than 20,000 people in the town of St. Pierre were killed.

24 Volcanoes Volcanic Landforms A caldera is a large crater-shaped basin that forms when the top of a volcano collapses.

25 Formation of Crater Lake

26 EFFUSIVE ERUPTIONS Generally at hots spots, spreading centers Mantly comes directly to surface Hot lava; low viscosity, very mafic, flows easily, gases escape easily Forms shields, flood basalts

27 EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS Found at subduction zones Magma low temp (800 degrees C), high viscosity, does not flow easilty, more felsic mineralogy, gases trapped, hard to predict explosions Forms composite volcanoes, cinder cones, calderas, aerial bombs, nuee ardente gas flows, very destructive

28 Volcanoes A. Magma Formation B. At Subduction Boundaries C. At Divergent Boundaries D. Over Hot Spots :Summary A. Types of Magma B. Lava Flows 1. Lava Flows on Land 2. Underwater Lava Flows C. Ash and Rock Fragments II. Magma and Erupted Materials A. Shield Volcanoes B. Cinder Cones C. Composite Volcanoes D. Calderas III. Volcanic Landforms E. Lava Plateaus

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