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Presentation on theme: "Volcanoes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Volcanoes

2 Classification of Volcanoes
Structure Tectonic Region Type of Eruptive Material Level of Activity Location Dangers Posed

3 Volcanoes Volcano: anywhere magma, ash, and gas erupts onto the surface

4 Factors Affecting Eruptions
Magma Composition Magma Temperature Amount of Dissolved Gases

5 Magma Types Rate at which magma moves is determined by its silica content Felsic: High silica content, light colored, slow moving  Bigger Eruptions Mafic: Low silica content, dark colored, fast moving  Calmer Eruptions

6 Volcanic Material Lava (magma that reaches the surface)
Gases: H20, CO2, Nitrogen, Sulfur… Tephra: fragments of lava Ash (less than 2mm) Lapilli (2-64mm) Bombs (larger than 64mm)

7 Lava Flows Mafic Pahoehoe: Flow with smooth ropelike surface, quick flowing basalt AA: Rough jagged surface Pillow Lava: Rounded pillow shaped Felsic Pyroclastic Flow: Superheated flow of gas and rock from the eruption

8 Eruption Types Depending on the eruption type, different volcanoes are formed

9 Rift Eruptions Occur at long, narrow fractures in the crust where lava flows out smoothly (mafic) In the ocean, it occurs at spreading centers (mid-ocean ridges)

10 Hot Spots Areas of volcanic activity in the middle of a plate
Caused by heat source in the mantle that makes magma rise Creates a chain of volcanic islands  overlying plate moves over it.

11 Shield Cone Volcanoes Rift Eruptions & Hot Spots make Shield Cone Volcanoes A broad base and gently sloping sides Usually low amounts of gas, mafic lava that flows long distances before it cools

12 Shield Cone Volcanoes

13 Subduction Boundary Eruption
Magma is thick and gas-rich. Plates are subducted, they melt, which floods the mantle with silica, making it felsic Explosive eruptions of mainly tephra and pyroclastic flows Form cinder cone volcanoes and stratovolcanoes

14 Cinder Cone Volcano A volcanic, circular cone with steep sides that is mainly made of tephra Gas rich, felsic lava

15 Stratovolcano Tall with gentle slope near base and steep slope near summit. Alternating layers of felsic lava and tephra deposits. Usually gas rich, felsic lava Lots of pyroclastic flows

16 Anatomy of a Stratovolcano

17 Plutons and Volcanism Volcanoes and lava flows are the surface activities of volcanism Magma below the crust, and its “behavior” impacts the earth in a variety of ways Plutons: the rock masses that form when magma cools inside other rocks

18 Dikes Sheets of igneous rock that cut vertically through the rock layers they intrude

19 Sills Sheets of igneous rocks that are parallel to the layers they intrude

20 Laccoliths When magmas bulge upwards forming domelike masses

21 Volcanic Necks When an extinct volcano is almost completely eroded, a volcanic neck may be left Plugs of hardened magma

22 Batholiths Largest of the plutons
Form the core of many mountain ranges Erosion of the mountain will expose them

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