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Rogoff invites us to think of school as a particular kind of sociocultural activity in which certain kinds of people participate and therefore learn particular.

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Presentation on theme: "Rogoff invites us to think of school as a particular kind of sociocultural activity in which certain kinds of people participate and therefore learn particular."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rogoff invites us to think of school as a particular kind of sociocultural activity in which certain kinds of people participate and therefore learn particular skills, attitudes, and roles. Who participates in school? How connected is school to the activities and practices of mature adults? What kinds of intelligences are valued there? How does “teaching” (or the guidance of students) happen? (see page 282) How are students motivated to do well? What kinds of attitudes do they learn there towards authority figures and their peers?

2 Childhood is a social identity that limits some roles and allows for others. What does schooling say about our society’s view of childhood?

3 Peasant households where work is embedded in the household What happened before mass schooling? Pieter Breughel c , “The Return of the Herd,” 1565

4 Blacksmithing Miniature from Chirurgia, by Gerard of Cremona12 th century

5 Schools in the Middle Ages in Europe Schools independent from each other, each organized by a particular teacher Lack of gradation of the curriculum Mixing of students of different ages: ten year olds might sit with twenty year olds Madrassa in Pakistan

6 Mass education was a product of nationalism Prussia, early 1800s; England and France, late 1800s: dependent on the relationship between political elite, upper classes, and the Church Industrial working class and rural peasantry expected to go to school for a few years only Upper levels of schooling monopolized by landowners and the topmost layers of the merchant and professional classes

7 A “dame school,” 1856 in the UK Dame schools Writing schools English schools Academies Monitorial schools

8 A monitorial school, invented by John Lancaster ( )

9 Educational Reforms of the 19 th century Horace Mann, “Let the common school be expanded in its capabilities, let it be worked with the efficiency of which it is susceptible, and nine- tenths of the crimes in the penal code would be obsolete; the long catalogue of human ills would be abridged; men would walk more safely by day; every pillow would be more inviolable by night; property, life, and character held by a stronger tenure; all rational hopes respecting the future brightened.”

10 Schools as a Public Good By the 1860s, most Americans saw schools as a public good: something that would benefit society as a whole Concerns about democracy Fears about new immigrants Children at Ellis Island, c. 1908

11 Public Schools in the South, 1860s “The first great movement for public education at the expense of the state in the South came from Negroes. Many white leaders before the war had advocated general education for white children but few had been listened to. Schools for indigents and pauper white children were supported here and there and more or less spasmodically. Some states had elaborate plans but they were not carried out. Public education for all at public expense was, in the South, a Negro idea.” ---W. E. B. DuBois

12 Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life, by Philippe Ariès (1962) Ariès was a French social historian: interested in changes in ideas and practices as ordinary people experienced them Mass education developed alongside a new view of children

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14 Philippe de Champaigne “The Habert de Montmort Children” (1649)

15 Jan Steen, “A School for Boys and Girls” c. 1670

16 Mass education was a product of nationalism Prussia, early 1800s; England and France, late 1800s: dependent on the relationship between political elite, upper classes, and the Church Industrial working class and rural peasantry expected to go to school for a few years only Upper levels of schooling monopolized by landowners and the topmost layers of the merchant and professional classes

17 A “dame school,” 1856 in the UK Dame schools Writing schools English schools Academies Monitorial schools

18 A monitorial school, invented by John Lancaster ( )

19 Educational Reforms of the 19 th century Horace Mann, “Let the common school be expanded in its capabilities, let it be worked with the efficiency of which it is susceptible, and nine- tenths of the crimes in the penal code would be obsolete; the long catalogue of human ills would be abridged; men would walk more safely by day; every pillow would be more inviolable by night; property, life, and character held by a stronger tenure; all rational hopes respecting the future brightened.”

20 Schools as a Public Good By the 1860s, most Americans saw schools as a public good: something that would benefit society as a whole Concerns about democracy Fears about new immigrants Children at Ellis Island, c. 1908

21 Public Schools in the South, 1860s “The first great movement for public education at the expense of the state in the South came from Negroes. Many white leaders before the war had advocated general education for white children but few had been listened to. Schools for indigents and pauper white children were supported here and there and more or less spasmodically. Some states had elaborate plans but they were not carried out. Public education for all at public expense was, in the South, a Negro idea.” ---W. E. B. DuBois


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