V s is the particles' settling velocity (vertically downwards if ρ p > ρ f, upwards if ρ p < ρ f ) g is the acceleration due to gravity, ρ p is the density of the particles, and ρ f is the density of the fluid Stokes law
The origin of hot spot volcanoes from melting of plumes
Dynamic models of mantle convection Plates going down Plumes coming up Rapid, small-cell convection on Io
Why does the mantle melt to produce hot spot magmas? Isentropic decompression melting Fluxing by volatiles Heating of the lithosphere by a hot plume Unconventional heat sources
Simple variations on the decompression melting theme Variations in potential temperature -- hotter mantle produces deeper melting, more magma Variations in the thickness of the lithosphere -- controls the depth at which melting terminates Fractional vs. batch melting All of these can vary from hot spot to hot spot and within a single volcano, producing distinctive chemical signatures
HSDP drilling in 1993 and 1999 into the flank of Mauna Kea volcano >95% recovery, to a total depth of 3.1 km below sea level Penetration through ~1 km of subaerial lavas, ~2 km of submarine deposits, both hyaloclastites and pillows
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