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Looking Out/Looking In Thirteenth Edition 3 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET CHAPTER TOPICS The Perception Process Influences on Perception Common.

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Presentation on theme: "Looking Out/Looking In Thirteenth Edition 3 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET CHAPTER TOPICS The Perception Process Influences on Perception Common."— Presentation transcript:

1 Looking Out/Looking In Thirteenth Edition 3 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET CHAPTER TOPICS The Perception Process Influences on Perception Common Tendencies in Perception Perception Checking Empathy, Cognitive Complexity and Communication

2 2 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET The Perception Process Four Steps of the Perception Process Selection Organization Interpretation Negotiation

3 3 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET The Perception Process Selection What attracts your attention? Selecting which impressions we will attend to Stimuli that are intense often attract our attention We’re more likely to remember: Extremely tall or short people An obnoxious laugh A person who speaks loudly

4 4 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET The Perception Process Organization Along with selecting information, we must arrange it in some meaningful way What do you see? Which image stands out? Figure 3.1 Page 84

5 5 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET The Perception Process Organization “Vase-Face” has a two figure relationships How many ways can you view the boxes? Figure 3.3 Page 85

6 6 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET The Perception Process Organization We classify people based on their: Appearance Beautiful or Ugly, Young or Old Social Role Student, Attorney, Wife Interaction Style Friendly, Helpful, Aloof Membership Democrat, Immigrant, Christian

7 7 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET The Perception Process Organization Stereotyping After the organizational scheme has been chosen, we use that scheme to make generalizations These generalizations lead to stereotyping Stereotypes may be based on a small amount of truth but beyond the facts at hand usually have no valid basis

8 8 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET The Perception Process Organization Stereotyping Three Characteristics You often categorize people on the basis of an easily recognized characteristic You ascribe a set of characteristics to most or all members of a category You apply the set of characteristics to any member of the group

9 9 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET The Perception Process Organization Punctuation Consider the punctuation of these sentences: “I don’t like your friend because he never has anything to say.” “He doesn’t talk to you because you act like you don’t like him.” “I keep talking because you interrupt so much.” “I interrupt so much because you don’t give me the chance to say what’s on my mind.”

10 10 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET The Perception Process Interpretation After we organize information we interpret it in a way that makes sense to us Interpretation plays a role in nearly every interpersonal act Consider these scenarios: Is a friend’s kidding a sign of affection or irritation? Should you take an invitation to “drop by any time” literally or not?

11 11 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET The Perception Process Interpretation Several factors influence our interpretation of an event: Degree of involvement with the other person Personal experience Assumptions about human behavior Attitudes Expectations Knowledge Self-concept

12 12 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET The Perception Process Negotiation Sense-making occurs between people as they influence one another’s perception Narratives Interpersonal acts have more than one narrative These narratives often differ Ask two quarreling children what they are fighting about You will be bombarded with two very different narratives Shared narratives provide the best chance for smooth communication

13 13 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Influences on Perception Physiological Influences Each of us perceives the work in a unique way The Senses How we experience our senses changes the way we interact and shape our perception Consider these everyday situations: “Turn down the radio! It’s going to make me go deaf.” “It’s not too loud. If I turn it down, it will be impossible to hear it.”

14 14 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Influences on Perception Physiological Influences The Senses Scents that please some people, repel others Temperature is subjective as well

15 15 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Influences on Perception Physiological Influences Age Older people view the world differently because they have a greater scope of experiences Health and Fatigue How do you experience the world? When you are tired? When you are sick? Did you feel less sociable? When you’re hungry?

16 16 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Influences on Perception Cultural Differences Perception is also affected by your culture Every culture has its own world view The range of cultural differences is wide In Middle Eastern countries: Personal scents play an important role in communication In Asian cultures Talk is perceived differently Silence is valued How does this differ for Western cultures?

17 17 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Influences on Perception Cultural Differences Ethnocentrism The attitude that one’s own culture is superior to others Geography Even ones physical location can shape the way they view the world Consider living in a particular part of the country What does it mean to live in the North? What does it mean to live in the West?

18 18 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Influences on Perception Social Roles Gender Roles (Sex vs. Gender) Sex refers to biological characteristics Gender refers to psychological dimensions of masculine and feminine behavior Gender roles are socially approved ways that men and women are expected to behave Androgynous Gender Role Combines masculine and feminine traits

19 19 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Influence on Perception Social Roles Occupational Roles The kind of work we do influences our view of the world Imagine five people taking a walk through the park A botanist A zoologist A meteorologist A psychologist A pickpocket

20 20 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Influence on Perception Social Roles Relational roles Roles you play in relation to others The role of parent Does being a parent change the way you view the world? The roles involved in romantic love Partner, spouse, boyfriend/girlfriend, sweetheart Your romantic roles can also change the way you view others

21 21 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Common Tendencies in Perception We Judge Ourselves More Charitably Self-serving Bias An attempt to convince ourselves that the positive face we show the world is true Consider this example: When they botch a job, they weren’t listening well or trying hard enough When we botch a job, the problem was unclear or perhaps there wasn’t enough time

22 22 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Common Tendencies in Perception We Cling to First Impressions Halo Effect The tendency to form an overall positive impression of a person on the basis of one positive characteristic We assume that others are similar to us We are influenced by the obvious

23 23 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Perception Checking The Skill of Perception Checking Serious problems can arise when we treat our interpretations as matters of fact Consider the following: “Why are you mad at me?” (Who said you were?) “What’s the matter with you?” (Who said anything was the matter?) “Come on now. Tell the truth.” (Who said you were lying?)

24 24 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Perception Checking Elements of Perception Checking A perception check has three parts: A description of the behavior you noticed At least two possible interpretations of the behavior A request for clarification about how to interpret the behavior

25 25 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Perception Checking Example: “You haven’t laughed much in the last couple of days.” (behavior) “It makes me wonder whether something’s bothering you,” (first interpretation) “or whether you’re just feeling quiet.” (second interpretation) “What’s up?” (request for clarification)

26 26 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Perception Checking Perception Checking Considerations Completeness A perception check doesn’t always need all parts Nonverbal Congruency Nonverbal behavior reflects open-mindedness Cultural Rules A straight forward approach may cause problems Face Saving Can help raise an uncomfortable topic

27 27 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Empathy, Cognitive Complexity and Communication Empathy The ability to re-create another person’s perspective, to experience the world from the other’s point of view Sympathy Viewing another person’s situation from your point of view

28 28 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Empathy, Cognitive Complexity and Communication Cognitive Complexity The ability to construct a variety of frameworks for viewing an issue Cognitive complexity: Increases the chances of satisfying communication in a variety of contexts Can be enhanced through training Can help increase one’s empathy

29 29 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Empathy, Cognitive Complexity and Communication The Pillow Method A quick tool for clarifying misunderstandings Figure 3.5 Page 110

30 30 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Empathy, Cognitive Complexity and Communication The Pillow Method Position 1: I’m Right, You’re Wrong Position 2: You’re Right, I’m Wrong Position 3: Both Right, Both Wrong Position 4: The Issue Isn’t as Important as it Seems Position 5: There is Truth in All Four Perspectives

31 31 PERCEPTION: WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET Chapter Review The Perception Process Influences on Perception Common Tendencies in Perception Perception Checking Empathy, Cognitive Complexity and Communication


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