Presentation on theme: "Perception: what you see is what you get"— Presentation transcript:
1Perception: what you see is what you get Chapter topicsThe Perception ProcessInfluences on PerceptionCommon Tendencies in PerceptionPerception CheckingEmpathy, Cognitive Complexity and Communication
2The Perception Process Four Steps of the Perception ProcessSelectionOrganizationInterpretationNegotiation
3The Perception Process SelectionWhat attracts your attention?Selecting which impressions we will attend toStimuli that are intense often attract our attentionWe’re more likely to remember:Extremely tall or short peopleAn obnoxious laughA person who speaks loudly
4The Perception Process OrganizationAlong with selecting information, we must arrange it in some meaningful wayWhat do you see?Which image stands out?Figure 3.1 Page 84
5The Perception Process Organization“Vase-Face” has a two figure relationshipsHow many ways can you view the boxes?Figure 3.3 Page 85
6The Perception Process OrganizationWe classify people based on their:AppearanceBeautiful or Ugly, Young or OldSocial RoleStudent, Attorney, WifeInteraction StyleFriendly, Helpful, AloofMembershipDemocrat, Immigrant, Christian
7The Perception Process OrganizationStereotypingAfter the organizational scheme has been chosen, we use that scheme to make generalizationsThese generalizations lead to stereotypingStereotypes may be based on a small amount of truth but beyond the facts at hand usually have no valid basis
8The Perception Process OrganizationStereotypingThree CharacteristicsYou often categorize people on the basis of an easily recognized characteristicYou ascribe a set of characteristics to most or all members of a categoryYou apply the set of characteristics to any member of the group
9The Perception Process OrganizationPunctuationConsider the punctuation of these sentences:“I don’t like your friend because he never has anything to say.”“He doesn’t talk to you because you act like you don’t like him.”“I keep talking because you interrupt so much.”“I interrupt so much because you don’t give me the chance to say what’s on my mind.”
10The Perception Process InterpretationAfter we organize information we interpret it in a way that makes sense to usInterpretation plays a role in nearly every interpersonal actConsider these scenarios:Is a friend’s kidding a sign of affection or irritation?Should you take an invitation to “drop by any time” literally or not?
11The Perception Process InterpretationSeveral factors influence our interpretation of an event:Degree of involvement with the other personPersonal experienceAssumptions about human behaviorAttitudesExpectationsKnowledgeSelf-concept
12The Perception Process NegotiationSense-making occurs between people as they influence one another’s perceptionNarrativesInterpersonal acts have more than one narrativeThese narratives often differAsk two quarreling children what they are fighting aboutYou will be bombarded with two very different narrativesShared narratives provide the best chance for smooth communication
13Influences on Perception Physiological InfluencesEach of us perceives the work in a unique wayThe SensesHow we experience our senses changes the way we interact and shape our perceptionConsider these everyday situations:“Turn down the radio! It’s going to make me go deaf.”“It’s not too loud. If I turn it down, it will be impossible to hear it.”
14Influences on Perception Physiological InfluencesThe SensesScents that please some people, repel othersTemperature is subjective as well
15Influences on Perception Physiological InfluencesAgeOlder people view the world differently because they have a greater scope of experiencesHealth and FatigueHow do you experience the world?When you are tired?When you are sick?Did you feel less sociable?When you’re hungry?
16Influences on Perception Cultural DifferencesPerception is also affected by your cultureEvery culture has its own world viewThe range of cultural differences is wideIn Middle Eastern countries:Personal scents play an important role in communicationIn Asian culturesTalk is perceived differentlySilence is valuedHow does this differ for Western cultures?
17Influences on Perception Cultural DifferencesEthnocentrismThe attitude that one’s own culture is superior to othersGeographyEven ones physical location can shape the way they view the worldConsider living in a particular part of the countryWhat does it mean to live in the North?What does it mean to live in the West?
18Influences on Perception Social RolesGender Roles (Sex vs. Gender)Sex refers to biological characteristicsGender refers to psychological dimensions of masculine and feminine behaviorGender roles are socially approved ways that men and women are expected to behaveAndrogynous Gender RoleCombines masculine and feminine traits
19Influence on Perception Social RolesOccupational RolesThe kind of work we do influences our view of the worldImagine five people taking a walk through the parkA botanistA zoologistA meteorologistA psychologistA pickpocket
20Influence on Perception Social RolesRelational rolesRoles you play in relation to othersThe role of parentDoes being a parent change the way you view the world?The roles involved in romantic lovePartner, spouse, boyfriend/girlfriend, sweetheartYour romantic roles can also change the way you view others
21Common Tendencies in Perception We Judge Ourselves More CharitablySelf-serving BiasAn attempt to convince ourselves that the positive face we show the world is trueConsider this example:When they botch a job, they weren’t listening well or trying hard enoughWhen we botch a job, the problem was unclear or perhaps there wasn’t enough time
22Common Tendencies in Perception We Cling to First ImpressionsHalo EffectThe tendency to form an overall positive impression of a person on the basis of one positive characteristicWe assume that others are similar to usWe are influenced by the obvious
23Perception Checking The Skill of Perception Checking Serious problems can arise when we treat our interpretations as matters of factConsider the following:“Why are you mad at me?” (Who said you were?)“What’s the matter with you?” (Who said anything was the matter?)“Come on now. Tell the truth.” (Who said you were lying?)
24Perception Checking Elements of Perception Checking A perception check has three parts:A description of the behavior you noticedAt least two possible interpretations of the behaviorA request for clarification about how to interpret the behavior
25Perception Checking Example: “You haven’t laughed much in the last couple of days.” (behavior)“It makes me wonder whether something’s bothering you,” (first interpretation)“or whether you’re just feeling quiet.” (second interpretation)“What’s up?” (request for clarification)
26Perception Checking Perception Checking Considerations Completeness A perception check doesn’t always need all partsNonverbal CongruencyNonverbal behavior reflects open-mindednessCultural RulesA straight forward approach may cause problemsFace SavingCan help raise an uncomfortable topic
27Empathy, Cognitive Complexity and Communication The ability to re-create another person’s perspective, to experience the world from the other’s point of viewSympathyViewing another person’s situation from your point of view
28Empathy, Cognitive Complexity and Communication The ability to construct a variety of frameworks for viewing an issueCognitive complexity:Increases the chances of satisfying communication in a variety of contextsCan be enhanced through trainingCan help increase one’s empathy
29Empathy, Cognitive Complexity and Communication The Pillow MethodA quick tool for clarifying misunderstandingsFigure 3.5 Page 110
30Empathy, Cognitive Complexity and Communication The Pillow MethodPosition 1: I’m Right, You’re WrongPosition 2: You’re Right, I’m WrongPosition 3: Both Right, Both WrongPosition 4: The Issue Isn’t as Important as it SeemsPosition 5: There is Truth in All Four Perspectives
31Chapter Review The Perception Process Influences on Perception Common Tendencies in PerceptionPerception CheckingEmpathy, Cognitive Complexity and Communication