Presentation on theme: "DNA Cellular Reproduction Genetics"— Presentation transcript:
1 DNA Cellular Reproduction Genetics FCAT ReviewDNACellular ReproductionGeneticsAssembled by: Jami Shaw and Amanda Braget
2 DNADeoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)- genetic material of all organisms is made up of two twisted strands of sugar-phosphate molecules and nitrogen bases.Found in the nucleus of a cellLooks like a spiral stair case (double helix) with matching basesA-T Adenine - ThymineG-C Guanine - Cytosine
3 DNA Hierarchy of DNA Nitrogen bases Sugar phosphate backbone DNA= Gene (small section)Chromosome (different shape)
4 DNA and Genetics DNA is responsible for all of our traits It is passed from the parent to the offspringCells must divide in order for reproduction of organisms to occurTwo ways DNA is passed from parent to offspringAsexual reproduction (one parent cell)Sexual reproduction (two parent cells)
5 Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Asexual ReproductionOne parent cell that has all of the chromosomes makes an identical copy of itselfParent cell then splits into two genetically identical cellsThese cells go through MitosisSexual ReproductionTwo parent cells that have half the number of chromosomes must joinTwo cells combine giving the offspring half of the mother’s genetics and half of the father’s genetic information
8 Mitosis Cell division for body cells Outcome- 2 IDENTICAL cells They have the same amount of chromosome as the parent cellHumans have 46 chromosomes
9 Meiosis Cell division to produce sex cells with ½ the DNA For sexual reproduction meiosis must happen in order to create cells which have HALF the number of chromosomes as the parent cellHuman sex cells have 23 chromosome so together they can make 46 total chromosomes (full DNA)
10 Heredity – passing of traits from parents to offspring With sexual reproduction you can have different traits show up in the offspring because of different alleles in the parentsAlleles – different forms a gene has for a traitA – dominant allele for a trait (upper case)a – recessive allele for a trait (lower case)Heterozygous – different alleles (Aa)Homozygous – identical alleles(AA or aa)
11 Punnett Squares Tools for predicting genetic crosses Genotype – genetic makeupWhat alleles are presentLetters (A, a, B, b etc.)Phenotype – physical makeupWhat is shownThe physical appearance (tall, short, white, red etc.)
12 Fill in the Punnett Square T – tall plantst – short plantsWhat is the likelihood the plants offspring will be tall?What is the likelihood the plants offspring will be short?What percentage of offspring will be tall plants?
13 Fill in the Punnett Square T – tall plantst – short plantsWhat is the likelihood the plants offspring will be tall?What is the likelihood the plants offspring will be short?What percentage of offspring will be tall plants?2 :4 or 1:22:4 or 1:250%
14 Punnett SquaresYOU MUST know how to compete a punnett square and tell what percentage of traits will show up in the offspringYou’re percentages should always add up to 100%Pay attention to whether is asking about the genotype of phenotype
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