Presentation on theme: "Gene- Section of the DNA responsible for a trait."— Presentation transcript:
1 Gene- Section of the DNA responsible for a trait. Chromosome- A rod Shape structure, located in the nucleus that carries DNA.
2 The DNA Connection Chromosomes are composed of DNA DNA molecules are composed of four nitrogen bases:Adenine (A)Thymine (T)Guanine (G)Cytosine (C)A binds to TC binds to G
3 The order of the nitrogen bases along a gene forms a genetic code that specifies what type of protein will be produced.During protein synthesis, the cell uses information from a gene on a chromosome to produce a specific protein.
9 Heredity- Passing of physical characteristics from parent to offspring. Trait- Form of a characteristic. Example- Stem height, Seed colorGenetics- Scientific study of heredity.Purebred/Homozygous- Offspring (baby, new organism) of many generations with the same trait. (Example purebred short plants always come from short parent plants)Hybrid/ Heterozygous- Organism with two different alleles for a trait.
10 What Mendel learnedAllele- Different forms of a gene. (For example tall or short)Dominant Allele- Trait that always shows up. ( For example the tall trait)Recessive Allele- Hidden whenever the dominant allele is present. (For Example the Short Trait)
11 Symbols for allelesA dominant allele is represented with a capital letter. (Allele for tall is T)A recessive allele is represented by the lowercase version of the letter. (Allele for short is t)A purebred tall plant has two dominant alleles (TT)- The plant will always be tall.A purebred short plant has two recessive alleles (tt)- The plant will always be short.A hybrid plant has one of each, and would have one of each (Tt)- Since tall is the dominant trait, this hybrid plant will be tall.
12 Genotype- Genetic makeup Genotype- Genetic makeup. It is represented by a pair of letters (TT, Tt, tt)Phenotype- Physical Appearance (tall, short)GenotypePhenotypeTTTallTtttShort
14 Punnett Square- Used to determine the probability of a genetic outcome
15 Sample Problem 1. A Punnett square is shown below. The dominant trait is represented by R. The recessive trait isrepresented by r.What percentage of the offspring will mostlikely show the dominant trait?(1) 25% (3) 75%(2) 50% (4) 100%