3Weathering & Its Effects Weathering: The physical & chemical processes that change the Earth’s surface over time* changes Earth’s surface* this process breaks, wears, abrades, and chemically alters rocks and rock surfaces* Also changes the chemical makeup of a rock often making it easy to break rock down* Over time, will break rocks into smaller pieces, or sediments, like boulders (large rock) to clay (the most microscopic rock)
4Causes of Mechanical Weathering Mechanical (Physical) Weathering: When physical processes naturally break rock into smaller pieces* The chemical makeup of a rock will not be changed by mechanical weatheringCauses of Mechanical WeatheringIce WedgingAbrasionPlantsAnimals* Frost wedgingWater enters cracks in rocks and freezes at 0 °C. Water expands as it freezes and widens the crack. Repeated freezing and thawing breaks rocks apartGrinds rock away by friction or impactWhen a plant grows in the crack of a rock the roots eventually grow, cracking the rock.Animals living in soil make holes in soil making it easy for water to enter causing weathering. Animals also break down rock by digging.
5Types of Mechanical Weathering wetting & dryingexfoliationplant roots
6Chemical WeatheringChemical Weathering: Changes materials that are part of a rock into new material
7Chemical Weathering Water & Chemical Weathering * most substances dissolve in water* minerals in rocks dissolve very slowly in water* when a rock dissolves in water, it breaks up into smaller partsDissolving by Acids* quickest way for rock to dissolve* acids attract atoms away from rock minerals and dissolve them in the acids* Scientist use pH, a property of solutions, to classify chemical liquids as acidic, basic, or neutralExamples* Carbon Dioxide in the air forms a weak acid when it reacts with rain water which dissolves rock* Acid forming chemicals enter the air from natural sources such as volcanoes producing acid rain causing more chemical weathering than usual
8pH 2-3 pH 4.5 pH 5.6 WEATHERING & EROSION vinegar Normal water acid rainpH 4.5WEATHERING & EROSION
9Chemical Weathering Oxidation Combines the element of oxygen with other elements and moleculesoxygen needed for oxidation comes from the airadding oxygen to a substance produces an oxide1886today
10What affects the weathering rates Environment:determines the rate at which rocks weatherboth type of weathering depends on water and temperaturemechanical weathering requires repeated cycles of wetting and drying or freezing and thawingchemical weathering occurs most rapidly in warm, wet placestype of rock also affects the weathering rateweathering is quicker on minerals with low hardness, size, and number of holes
11Can weathering help plants? Water pools on the surface of rocks and attaches to the grains of soil. A greater surface area means more water, along with any substance the water contains, sticks to surfaces. Soils can hold higher concentrations of moisture and nutrients are better for plant growth
12Types of Chemical Weathering HydrolysisOxidationCarbonic Acid
13Surface AreaGreater surface area increases the rate of weathering rates.Surface area is the amount of rock surfaces exposed to the atmosphereWeathering creates more surface area
15What is soil?Soil: the components of soil is a mixture of weathered rock, sediments, decayed organic matter, water, and air.* changes Earth’s surface* this process breaks, wears, abrades, and chemically alters rocks and rock surfaces* Also changes the chemical makeup of a rock often making it easy to break rock down* Over time, will break rocks into smaller pieces, or sediments, like boulders (large rock) to clay (the most microscopic rock)
16What is soil? Organic Inorganic Description: remains of something that was once aliveDescription: Materials that were never aliveExamples:LeavesDead insectsWaste productsSandSiltClayDecomposition changes once living material into dark colored organic matter. This matter helps hold nutrients in the soil
17Formation of SoilParent material: rock or sediment that weathers or forms the soil.Effect: Wind and water carry particles to a different location,Climate: the average weather of an area.Effect: amount of precipitation and temperature speeds/slows weatheringTopography: the shape and steepness of the landscape.Effect: the shape of the area determines how much water reaches the soilBiota: all organisms living in a region.Effect: animals burrowing, decomposition, and wastes affects soil & rock compositionTime: Soil formation is a slow processEffect: 1,000 year old soil is considered young!
18Soil HorizonsO HORIZON- This is the top layer of soil that is made up of living and decomposed materials like leaves, plants, and bugs. This layer is very thin and is usually pretty dark.A HORIZON- This is the layer that we call "topsoil" This layer is made up of minerals and decomposed organic matter and it is also very dark in color. This is the layer that many plants roots grow in.B HORIZON- This is the layer that we call "subsoil". This layer has clay and mineral deposits and less organic materials than the layers above it. This layer is also lighter in color than the layers above it.C HORIZON- This is the layer that we call "regolith“. This layer is made up of slightly unbroken rock and only a little bit of organic material is found here. Plant roots are not found in this layer.